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You are here: Home Volume VIII May 2009 Short Take: Prospective Livestock for the Temperate Marine Aquarium: A Photo Essay

Short Take: Prospective Livestock for the Temperate Marine Aquarium: A Photo Essay

By Kenneth Wingerter Posted May 14, 2009 08:00 PM Pomacanthus Publications, Inc.
While this discussion is by no means an exhaustive list of worthy species nor a complete guide for aquarium husbandry, it is hoped that the descriptions and images of the creatures herein featured arouse a greater interest in this highly rewarding art.

Despite having enjoyed a long history within public institutions, temperate marine aquarium keeping is yet restricted to a small (though enthusiastic) body of hobbyists. Notwithstanding a considerable marginalization by the momentous demand for tropical reef aquaria since the late-1980's, temperate aquaria have recently garnered a marked increase in popular and commercial attention. It may well be that this growing interest is strongest among accomplished reef aquarists that are looking for new play; still, as quality temperate aquarium livestock and literature becomes readily accessible in the trade, it perhaps will-- owing to the comparatively minimal care demanded by these adaptable creatures-- be appreciated by as many pre-reefers as post-reefers. Whether one is a newcomer or a seasoned expert, the home aquarist that considers building a temperate display will likely be most responsive not to talk of exotic equipment or novel methodologies, but to opportunities to display colorful, interesting marine life within handsome aquascapes. With that in mind, the following pictorial has been arranged with the intention of presenting a wee portion of the many beautiful animals that are either currently available (to some degree) to those willing to locate them in the trade, or to the lucky few who can "go native," harvesting specimens and extracting live rock from their local waters. While this discussion is by no means an exhaustive list of worthy species nor a complete guide for aquarium husbandry, it is hoped that the descriptions and images of the creatures herein featured arouse a greater interest in this highly rewarding art.

Gallery

1_unique_and_attractive_temperate_aquarium_displays_can_be_constructed_as_evidenced_by_this_new_zealand_rocky_coast_biotope_photo_by_www_aquariacentral_com_.jpg

1. Unique and attractive temperate aquarium displays can be constructed, as evidenced by this New Zealand rocky coast biotope. Photo by www.aquariacentral.com.

2_nano_aquaria_may_be_used_to_great_effect_for_temperate_displays_as_with_this_oregon_coast_biotope_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

2. Nano-aquaria may be used to great effect for temperate displays, as with this Oregon coast biotope. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

3_this_rich_assortment_of_cobblestone_exemplifies_the_great_variety_of_materials_appropriate_for_use_as_rock_and_substrate_in_temperate_aquaria_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

3. This rich assortment of cobblestone exemplifies the great variety of materials appropriate for use as rock and substrate in temperate aquaria. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

4_commensal_organisms_such_as_this_strawberry_soft_coral_gersemia_rubiformis_can_be_collected_on_shells_of_molluscs_like_this_scallop_crassedoma_giganteum_photo_by_kawika_chetron_.jpg

4. Commensal organisms such as plumose anemones (Metridium senile) and strawberry soft coral (Gersemia rubiformis) can be collected on shells of molluscs like this scallop (Crassedoma giganteum) as well as live rock. Photo by Kawika Chetron.

5_modest_commercial_harvests_of_abundant_temperate_ornamental_species_would_have_minimal_impact_on_wild_populations_photo_by_kawika_chetron_.jpg

5. Modest commercial harvests of abundant temperate ornamental species would have minimal impact on wild populations. Photo by Kawika Chetron.

6_as_it_is_for_their_warmer_water_cousins_temperate_sponges_like_this_haliclona_sp_require_heavy_flow_and_abundant_planktonic_foods_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

6. As it is for their warmer-water cousins, temperate sponges like this Haliclona sp. require heavy flow and abundant planktonic foods. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

7_in_nutrient_rich_temperate_systems_care_must_be_taken_to_ensure_that_exposed_sponges_are_not_quickly_smothered_by_fouling_algae_growth_photo_by_www_aquariacentral_com_.jpg

7. In nutrient-rich temperate systems, care must be taken to ensure that exposed sponges are not quickly smothered by fouling algae growth. Photo by www.aquariacentral.com.

8_feather_duster_worms_eudistylia_vancouveri_maroon_and_e_polymorpha_tan_are_common_from_alaska_to_california_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

8. Feather duster worms Eudistylia vancouveri (maroon) and E. polymorpha (tan) are common from Alaska to California. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

9_unidentified_feather_duster_worm_and_jewel_anemones_corynactis_haddoni_photo_by_www_aquariacentral_com_.jpg

9. Unidentified feather duster worm and jewel anemones (Corynactis haddoni). Photo by www.aquariacentral.com.

10_cirratulidae_worms_mating_near_beadlet_anemone_actinia_equina_photo_by_jon_olav_bj_rndal_.jpg

10. Cirratulidae worms mating near beadlet anemone (Actinia equina). Photo by Jon Olav Bjørndal.

11_small_natural_outcropping_with_giant_plumose_anemone_metridium_farcimen_yellow_zoanthids_epizoanthus_scotinus_and_club_tipped_anemone_corynactis_californica_photo_by_kawika_chetron_.jpg

11. Small natural outcropping with giant plumose anemone (Metridium farcimen), yellow zoanthids (Epizoanthus scotinus), and strawberry anemone (Corynactis californica). Photo by Kawika Chetron.

12_orange_hydroids_garveia_annulata_and_pink_mouth_hydroid_tubularia_crocea_in_a_shallow_tide_pool_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

12. Orange hydroids (Garveia annulata) and pink-mouth hydroid (Tubularia crocea) in a shallow tide pool. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

13_a_characteristically_thick_clonal_assembly_of_aggregating_anemone_anthopleura_elegantissima_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

13. A characteristically thick clonal assembly of aggregating anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima). Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

14_a_red_rimmed_variety_of_moonglow_anemone_anthopleura_artemisia_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

14. A red-rimmed variety of moonglow anemone (Anthopleura artemisia). Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

15_the_small_but_attractive_striped_anemone_haliplanella_luciae_may_have_been_introduced_to_both_us_coasts_from_japanese_ships_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

15. The small but attractive striped anemone (Haliplanella luciae) may have been introduced to both U.S. coasts from Japanese ships. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

16_a_beautiful_example_of_painted_anemone_urticina_crassicornis_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

16. A beautiful example of painted anemone (Urticina crassicornis). Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

17_white_spotted_rose_anemone_urticina_lofotensis_photo_by_kenneth_wingerter_.jpg

17. White-spotted rose anemone (Urticina lofotensis). Photo by Kenneth Wingerter.

18_close_up_of_stubby_rose_anemone_urticina_coriacea_revealing_the_intricate_banding_common_to_its_genus_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

18. Close-up of stubby rose anemone (Urticina coriacea) revealing the intricate banding common to its genus. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

19_unidentified_new_zealand_anemone_making_good_use_of_its_sweeper_tentacles_photo_by_www_aquariacentral_com_.jpg

19. Unidentified New Zealand anemone making good use of its sweeper tentacles. Photo by www.aquariacentral.com.

20_gorgeous_dahlia_anemone_isocradactis_magna_mingling_with_jewel_anemones_corynactis_haddoni_photo_by_www_aquariacentral_com_.jpg

20. Gorgeous dahlia anemone (Isocradactis magna) mingling with jewel anemones (Corynactis haddoni). Photo by www.aquariacentral.com.

21_beadlet_anemones_actinia_equina_occur_widely_across_temperate_atlantic_shores_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

21. Beadlet anemones (Actinia equina) occur widely across temperate Atlantic shores. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

22_one_of_many_morphs_of_the_highly_variable_beadlet_anemone_actinia_equina_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

22. One of many morphs of the highly variable beadlet anemone (Actinia equina). Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

23_this_bright_blue_anemone_phymactis_papillosa_is_native_to_chile_photo_by_steve_weast_.jpg

23. This bright blue anemone (Phymactis papillosa) is native to Chile. Photo by Steve Weast.

24_the_aquarium_hobby_would_benefit_greatly_from_more_frequent_imports_of_chilean_treasures_such_as_this_anemone_phymanthea_pluvia_photo_by_kenneth_wingerter_.jpg

24. The aquarium hobby would benefit greatly from more frequent imports of Chilean treasures such as this anemone (Phymanthea pluvia). Photo by Kenneth Wingerter.

25_brooding_anemones_epiactis_prolifera_can_be_cultured_in_aquaria_offspring_develop_in_pits_along_the_column_photo_by_steve_weast_.jpg

25. Brooding anemones (Epiactis prolifera) can be cultured in aquaria-- offspring develop in pits along the column. Photo by Steve Weast.

26_the_waratah_anemone_actinia_tenebrosa_can_be_cultured_in_aquaria_with_offspring_spit_from_the_parent_s_mouth_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

26. The waratah anemone (Actinia tenebrosa) can be cultured in aquaria, with offspring spit from the parent's mouth. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

27_strawberry_anemone_corynactis_californica_of_the_northeast_pacific_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

27. Strawberry anemone (Corynactis californica) of the Northeast Pacific. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

28_corynactis_sp_are_not_actually_anemones_but_corallimorpharians_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

28. Corynactis sp. are not actually anemones, but corallimorpharians. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

29_corynactis_sp_readily_reproduce_in_captivity_if_fed_generously_photo_by_steve_weast_.jpg

29. Corynactis sp. readily reproduce in captivity if fed generously. Photo by Steve Weast.

30_corynactis_viridis_from_northern_europe_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

30. Corynactis viridis from Northern Europe. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

31_spectacular_example_of_corynactis_haddoni_from_new_zealand_photo_by_www_aquariacentral_com_.jpg

31. Spectacular example of Corynactis haddoni from New Zealand. Photo by www.aquariacentral.com.

32_corynactis_haddoni_with_interesting_pinwheel_pattern_photo_by_www_aquariacentral_com_.jpg

32. Corynactis haddoni with interesting pinwheel pattern. Photo by www.aquariacentral.com.

33_it_is_a_wonder_that_beautiful_jewel_anemones_like_this_pink_spotted_variety_are_not_common_imports_photo_by_www_aquariacentral_com_.jpg

33. It is a wonder that beautiful jewel anemones, like this pink-spotted variety, are not common imports. Photo by www.aquariacentral.com.

34_creatures_such_as_this_jewel_top_snail_calliostoma_annulatum_dispell_notions_that_temperate_animals_are_unattractive_photo_by_kawika_chetron_.jpg

34. Creatures such as this jewel top snail (Calliostoma annulatum) dispel notions that temperate animals are unattractive. Photo by Kawika Chetron.

35_thick_beds_of_blue_mussel_mytilus_edulus_function_as_powerful_water_filters_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

35. Thick beds of blue mussel (Mytilus edulus) function as powerful water filters. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

36_one_should_always_research_the_feeding_habits_of_nudibranchs_before_adding_them_to_aquaria_photo_by_www_aquariacentral_com_.jpg

36. One should always research the feeding habits of nudibranchs before adding them to aquaria. Photo by www.aquariacentral.com.

37_nudibranchs_hermicressenda_crassicornis_feeding_on_hydroids_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

37. Nudibranchs (Hermicressenda crassicornis) feeding on hydroids. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

38_sponge_eating_dorid_nudibranch_from_norway_photo_by_jon_olav_bj_rndal_.jpg

38. Sponge-eating dorid nudibrach from Norway. Photo by Jon Olav Bjørndal.

39_california_sea_hare_aplysia_californica_purple_gorgonian_eugorgonia_rubrens_and_zoanthid_parazoanthus_luciforum_kawika_chetron_.jpg

39. California sea hare (Aplysia californica), purple gorgonians (Eugorgonia rubrens), and zoanthid (Parazoanthus luciforum). Kawika Chetron.

40_mossy_chitons_mopalia_muscosa_can_be_quite_effective_at_controlling_nuisance_algae_in_the_aquarium_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

40. Mossy chitons (Mopalia muscosa) can be quite effective at controlling nuisance algae in the aquarium. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

41_leaf_barnacles_pollicipes_polymerus_will_not_survive_in_aquaria_without_frequent_heavy_zooplankton_feedings_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

41. Leaf barnacles (Pollicipes polymerus) will not survive in aquaria without frequent, heavy zooplankton feedings. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

42_unidentified_prawn_from_new_zealand_photo_by_www_aquariacentral_com_.jpg

42. Unidentified prawn from New Zealand. Photo by www.aquariacentral.com.

43_as_illustrated_by_this_cluster_of_pisaster_ochraceus_and_henricia_sp_temperate_starfish_are_found_in_a_wide_range_of_sizes_photo_by_kenneth_wingerter_.jpg

43. As illustrated by this cluster of Pisaster ochraceus and Henricia sp., temperate starfish are found in a wide range of sizes. Photo by Kenneth Wingerter.

44_southern_temperate_seas_are_home_to_the_exotic_biscuit_star_tosia_australis_photo_by_steve_weast_.jpg

44. Southern temperate seas are home to the exotic biscuit star (Tosia australis). Photo by Steve Weast.

45_purple_sea_urchins_strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_here_shown_with_anemone_anthopleura_elegantissima_quickly_devour_any_algae_within_their_grasp_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

45. Purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), here shown with anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima), quickly devour any algae within their grasp. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

46_sheephead_semicossyphus_pulcher_near_california_hydrocoral_stylaster_californicus_and_red_gorgonian_lophogorgia_chilensis_photo_by_kawika_chetron_.jpg

46. Sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) near California hydrocoral (Stylaster californicus) and red gorgonian (Lophogorgia chilensis). Photo by Kawika Chetron.

47_male_painted_gobies_pomatoschistus_pictus_posturing_photo_by_jon_olav_bj_rndal_.jpg

47. Male painted gobies (Pomatoschistus pictus) posturing in a Norwegian intertidal biotope. Photo by Jon Olav Bjørndal.

48_too_often_catalina_gobies_lythrypnus_dalli_are_inappropriately_housed_in_tropical_systems_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

48. Too often, Catalina gobies (Lythrypnus dalli) are inappropriately housed in tropical systems. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

49_pricklebacks_and_gunnels_of_all_kinds_have_proven_to_be_very_adaptable_to_aquarium_conditions_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

49. Pricklebacks and gunnels of all kinds have proven to be very adaptable to aquarium conditions. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

50_kelp_gunnel_ulvicola_sanctaerosae_photo_by_kawika_chetron_.jpg

50. Kelp gunnel (Ulvicola sanctaerosae). Photo by Kawika Chetron.

51_often_temperate_fish_such_as_this_unidentified_gunnel_are_more_eye_catching_in_naturalistic_surroundings_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

51. Often, temperate fish, such as this unidentified gunnel, are more eye-catching in naturalistic surroundings. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

52_properly_fed_some_pipefish_would_thrive_in_a_seagrass_dominated_refugium_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

52. Properly fed, some pipefish would thrive in a seagrass-dominated refugium. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

53_a_china_rockfish_sebastes_nebulosus_between_a_colony_of_california_hydrocoral_stylaster_californicus_and_sponge_ophlitaspongia_sp_photo_by_kawika_chetron_.jpg

53. A China rockfish (Sebastes nebulosus) between a colony of California hydrocoral (Stylaster californicus) and sponge (Ophlitaspongia sp.). Photo by Kawika Chetron.

54_the_grunt_sculpin_rhamphocottus_richardsonii_is_a_strange_looking_native_of_puget_sound_washington_photo_by_steve_weast_.jpg

54. The grunt sculpin (Rhamphocottus richardsonii) is a strange-looking native of Puget Sound, Washington. Photo by Steve Weast.

55_snubnose_sculpin_orthonopias_triacis_between_orange_cup_coral_balanophyllia_elegans_and_hydrocoral_stylantheca_porphyra_photo_by_kawika_chetron_.jpg

55. Snubnose sculpin (Orthonopias triacis) between orange cup coral (Balanophyllia elegans) and hydrocoral (Stylantheca porphyra). Photo by Kawika Chetron.

56_the_charming_personality_of_many_sculpins_is_enough_to_win_the_heart_of_any_aquarist_photo_by_www_nano_reef_com_.jpg

56. The charming personality of many sculpins is enough to win the heart of any aquarist. Photo by www.nano-reef.com.

57_the_shaw_s_boxfish_aracana_aurita_from_southern_australia_and_tasmania_can_be_acquired_through_the_trade_but_at_a_considerable_expense_photo_by_steve_weast_.jpg

57. The Shaw's boxfish (Aracana aurita) from Southern Australia and Tasmania can be acquired through the trade, but at a considerable expense. Photo by Steve Weast.

58_like_other_boxfish_the_white_bar_boxfish_anoplocapros_lenticularis_may_exude_toxic_skin_secretions_if_stressed_photo_by_steve_weast_.jpg

58. Like other boxfish, the white bar boxfish (Anoplocapros lenticularis) may exude toxic skin secretions if stressed. Photo by Steve Weast.

59_the_western_blue_devil_paraplesiops_meleagris_actually_gets_more_colorful_with_age_photo_by_steve_weast_.jpg

59. The western blue devil (Paraplesiops meleagris) actually gets more colorful with age. Photo by Steve Weast.

60_garibaldi_hypsypops_rubicundus_in_a_scene_dominated_by_gorgonian_lophogorgia_chilensis_and_giant_kelp_macrocystis_sp_photo_by_kawika_chetron_.jpg

60. Garibaldi (Hypsypops rubicundus) in a scene dominated by gorgonians (Lophogorgia chilensis) and giant kelp (Macrocystis sp.). Photo by Kawika Chetron.

Note

Aquarists may be prohibited from harvesting certain species in certain localities. One should always seek guidance from appropriate state agencies before disturbing any wild area. In many cases, collection permits are issued to private aquarists for personal use; however, it is advisable for individuals to neither sell nor trade livestock thusly obtained, as it could result in stiff penalties. Of course, one should never harvest rare or threatened species, whether or not it is permissible by law.

References

  1. http://www.foreshores.net
  2. http://www.nano-reef.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=194662&hl=coldwater
  3. http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=150891&highlight=temperate
  4. http://www.coldwaterimages.com
  5. http://www.jonolavsakvarium.com/blog
  6. http://oregonreef.com
  7. Anderson, Roland C. Aquarium Husbandry of Pacific Northwest Marine Invertebrates. Seattle, WA: The Seattle Aquarium, 2001.
  8. Dakin, Nick. Complete Encyclopedia of the Saltwater Aquarium. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 2003.
  9. Hemdal, Jay F. Advanced Marine Aquarium Techniques: Guide to Successful Marine Aquarium Systems. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications, 2006.
  10. Wingerter, Kenneth. "Try a Cool, Refreshing Temperate Marine Aquarium." Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine 8, no. 3. http://www.advancedaquarist.com/2009/3.
  11. Wingerter, Kenneth. "Considerations for Building and Maintaining a Temperate Marine Aquarium." Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine 8, no. 4. http://www.advancedaquarist.com/2009/4.
  12. Wrobel, David. The Temperate Reef Aquarium. Sand City, CA: California Reef Specialists, 1991.
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