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You are here: Home Volume IX January 2010 Aquarium Corals: Stony Coral Parasites: Part One: Copepods, Not Just Red Bugs

Aquarium Corals: Stony Coral Parasites: Part One: Copepods, Not Just Red Bugs

By Dana Riddle Posted Jan 14, 2010 07:00 PM Pomacanthus Publications, Inc.
There is quite a pool of coral parasite research available, but these research articles are disjointed and scattered among the internet and some obscure journals.

I have been contemplating writing this article(s) for quite a while. I had a few photographs taken over the years, but when a friend on the mainland (Steve Ruddy) sent some coral parasite - 'bug' - photos, that did it - it was time to do some further research and get this all on paper (or the internet, as the case may be).

image001.jpg

Figure 1. The parasitic copepod Kombia angulata, a species found on or in stony corals Psammocora and Porites. Drawing by the author, after Humes and Stock, 1972.

The title of this article is a reflection on the state of the art of the reef aquarium hobby - advanced aquarists have reached a point where most of the captive reef's husbandry issues have been resolved. We can now concentrate on issues on other than the Big Four (temperature, lighting, water motion, and water chemistry).

There is quite a pool of coral parasite research available, but these research articles are disjointed and scattered among the internet and some obscure journals. Early books for hobbyists have briefly examined coral predators and parasites (Wilkens, 1990; Wilkens and Berkholz, 1986; Sprung and Delbeek, 1997; Delbeek and Sprung, 1994; Delbeek and Sprung, 2005), yet parasitic copepods are only briefly discussed. The goal of this article is to consolidate some of these resources in a concise reference. With this said, we know relatively little about coral parasites, although this article will examine almost 250 species belonging to over 30 genera that are known parasites of stony corals. There are probably thousands of coral parasites yet to be scientifically described.

Bear in mind that an observation made in an aquarium has a fair chance of being a first, and I encourage hobbyists to document their experiences, and truly appreciate those hobbyists who have shared their observations with me.

Before we begin our discussion, perhaps a quick review of terms (pertinent to this and following articles) is in order:

Commensal:
Organisms living in, or, or with another without injury or harm to the other.
Copepod:
Small aquatic crustaceans of the Subclass Copepoda, usually having 6 pairs of legs. Some copepods are parasites.
Ectoparasite:
A parasite living on the exterior of its host.
Endoparasite:
An internal parasite.
Flatworm:
Worms of the phylum Platyhelminthes. Some are parasitic.
Nudibranch:
Literally 'naked gills' - these mollusks (suborder Nudibranchia) often have branched respiratory organs on their backs and/or sides. Some nudibranchs eat corals.
Parasite:
An organism that derives nutriment from another organism (known as the host), and at the expense of the host. From the Greek work parasitos, literally 'one who eats at another's table'.
Predator:
An organism that survives by consuming other organisms.
Symbiosis:
Organisms mutually benefiting from living on, in, or with another.
Symbiont:
A partner in symbiosis.

Here we report on coral parasites that have rather specific dietary requirements, how to control them, and other observations.

Copepods

Copepods (meaning "oar feet") are crustaceans and are found in an astounding number of environments, including wet terrestrial leave litter, wet leaves, fresh water lakes, ponds, and streams, salt lakes, and numerous marine environments ranging from the arctic to tropical environs. Their adult size is small (up to about ~3.5mm - ~1/8" - for coral parasites) but more often smaller, with females usually larger than males. Careful examination will usually reveal them to the unaided eye, but be aware some are transparent or assume the color of the host.

Copepods have a tough exoskeleton that is shed as the animal grows. Sub-adult and many adult copepods have a single eye which is usually red in transmitted light (that is, under a microscope). Antennae (two sets), maxillipeds, and a set of secondary maxilla can collect and push food to the mandible. Food is processed in an intestine (often of a different color from the body); waste is discharged through an opening in the anal segment. Egg sacs are projections of the genital segment in females. Swimming legs are articulated appendages of the metasome (a subsection of the prosome). Two 'tails' (fural rami) radiate from a structure called the caudal ramus.

image003.jpg

Figure 2. Copepod anatomy. These terms should be familiar to those wishing to identify parasitic copepods.

Copepods are usually present, at least to some degree, in marine aquaria. They serve as food sources for many marine animals and their presence is generally beneficial. Live, frozen, or freeze-dried copepods are often added to aquaria as sustenance for fishes and marine invertebrates.

Most copepods feed on bacteria, diatoms or other small food particles. However, some have specialized diets and are associated with specific animals, including soft and stony corals, gorgonians, Tridacna clams, and so on.

Parasitic Copepods

Some copepod species are known parasites of stony corals, soft corals, anemones, Tridacna clams, starfish, and many other invertebrates, although the number of parasitic bugs is small when compared to the number of non-parasitic copepods (parasitic copepods are perhaps 15% of the number of 'bugs' known to inhabit invertebrates, according to copepod guru Arthur Humes). It is popular among hobbyists to lump parasitic crustaceans into loose categories called 'red bugs' and 'black bugs'. In addition, red bugs are typically ascribed by hobbyists to a single species (Tegastes acroporanus - although this 'bug' is officially described as occurring in only a single coral species - the Pacific stony coral Acropora florida), due in large part by an article written in 2002 by Ron Shimek. Actually, corals can be infested externally or internally by quite a number of parasitic copepod genera, including Alteuthellopsis, Xarifia, Stockia, Humesiella, Tegastes, Parategastes, Orstomella, Zazaranus, and many others. See Table One.

See Table Two at the end of this article for a listing of Coral Hosts and Copepod Parasites (by species).

Table One. A concise listing of parasitic copepods found on or in stony corals. There are at least 240 copepod species known to feed on stony corals.
Genus Family Order # Species
Acontiophorus Siphonostomatoida Asterocheridae 1
Alteuthellopsis Harpacticoida Peltidiidae 1
Amarda Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 4
Anchimolgus Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 32
Andrianellus Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 2
Armadopsis* Poecilostomatoida Lichmolgidae 1
Asterocheres Siphonostomatoida Asterocheridae 1
Cerioxynus Poecilostomatoida Lichomolgidae 6
Corallonoxia Cyclopoida Corallovexiidae 2
Corallovexia Cyclopoida Corallovexiidae 8
Diallagomolgus Poecilostomatoida Rhynchomolgidae 2
Dumbeana Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 1
Ecphysarion Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 3
Gelastomolgus Poecilostomatoida 1
Haplomolgus Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 3
Hemicyclops Poecilostomatoida Clausidiiae 1
Humesiella Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 1
Kombia Poecilostomatoida Rhynchomolgidae 5
Lipochaetes Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 1
Lipochrus Poecilostomatoida Xarifidae 1
Monomolgus Poecilostomatoida Rhynchomolgidae 4
Numboa Poecilostomatoida Rhynchomolgidae 1
Odontomolgus Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 17
Orstomella Poecilostomatoida Xarifidae 3
Panjakus Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 11
Parategastes Harpacticoida Tegastidae 1
Prionomolgus Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 1
Rakotoa Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 2
Ravahina Poecilostomatoida Rhynchomolgidae 1
Schedomolgus Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 13
Scyphuliger Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 14
Spaniomolgus Poecilostomatoida Rhynchomolgidae 3
Stockmyzon Siphonostomatoida Asterocheridae 2
Tegastes Harpacticoida Tegastidae 4
Unicispina Poecilostomatoida Anchimolgidae 1
Wedanus Poecilostomatoida Rhynchomolgidae 1
Xarifia Poecilostomatoida Xarifidae 86
Xenomolgus Poecilostomatoida Rhynchomolgidae 1
Zazaranus Poecilostomatoida Xarifidae 1
*I have been unable to locate further info on Armadopsis and
assume the name is no longer valid.

For those wishing to identify parasitic copepods, there are a number of prerequisites. Infinite patience will be required to accurately identify most of these animals, although getting an ID to the genus level is fairly easy with certain bugs. A quality microscope is a must. Preferably, a digital camera and microscope adapter will supply photo documentation for further analyses utilizing existing keys for parasitic copepods (see 'References', below).

Geographical Distribution

Copepods are found throughout the world's aquatic environments, ranging from salt lakes and tropical oceans to icy polar waters and areas around deep-sea thermal vents.

Previous popular literature in aquaria publications has generally regarded parasitic copepods to be germane only to the Pacific Ocean. Not so - copepods considered to be parasitic of various coral genera are pandemic. See Figure 3.

image005.jpg

Figure 3. General geographical distribution of a few parasitic copepod genera.

As Figure 3 attempts to demonstrate, coral parasites are partitioned geographically. Atlantic genera are not closely related to those parasites found in the Pacific.

Parasitism versus Predation

A thin line separates parasites from predators. A predator simply feeds upon its prey and is not concerned of its prey's ultimate fate (other than it supplies nutriment when eaten), but a parasite generally benefits from its relationship (such as it is), while its host suffers and may become weakened and more susceptible to life-threatening ailments. The parasite benefits only as long as its host is alive.

The degree of injury or trauma inflicted by the parasite to its host is therefore important, and Sparks (1985) describes invertebrates' responses to injury as follows:

  • Inflammation (defined as reactive change subsequent to injury).
  • Wound repair involving removal of necrotic tissues and restoration of its function.

Obviously, for a parasite's strategy to succeed, the amount of injury must not exceed the host's ability to repair the damage. Which begs the question: At what point does a population of parasites begin to pose a life-endangering threat to the host? The answer surprised me - some clams' health is threatened when only 5 - repeat 5 - parasites reside on or within them (Sparks, 1985). On the other hand, Humes (1994) reports a small stony coral colony (Pocillopora damicornis - 16 cm diameter or about 6 inches) was infested with 668 parasitic Xarifia quinaria copepods.

Symptoms of Parasitic Copepod Infestations

Symptoms demonstrated by the host of parasite infestations might not be immediately apparent. Although external parasitic copepods are not particularly difficult to spot, it does require good powers of observation to detect their presence. To make matters worse, many copepods can live within coral corals' polyps, making their presence undetectable (see below for a known method of infestation used by the xarifid Xarifia obesa).

A coral's symptoms of internal parasites depend upon the number of parasites. Often, a general lack of wellness is observed, with loss of vibrant coloration and poor polyp expansion, and loss of zooxanthellae (perhaps a result of predation by the parasite) being possible responses to parasitic infestations.

image007.jpg

Figure 4. The Montipora specimen (center) is infested with 'black bugs'. While polyp expansion is still good, it lacks its normal vivid coloration. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy (www.coralreefecosystems.com).

image009.jpg

Figure 5. Copepods on a Montipora specimen. Notice the eye spots. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy (www.coralreefecosystems.com).

image012.jpg

Figure 6. Another photo of the Montipora copepods. Note the segmentation, color, eye spot, and first antennae. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy (www.coralreefecosystems.com).

image013.jpg

Figure 7. A photomicrograph of a 'black bug' found on a Montipora specimen - it appears to be a Tegastes or Parategastes species. These bugs are small - only about 0.34mm, and will be discussed in Part 3 of this series. Photo by the author.

Copepods - Vectors of Disease?

Ivanenko and Smurov (1996) raise the interesting possibility that copepods might introduce pathogens to its host. This could perhaps explain why some copepods infestations are relatively harmless, while seemingly mild cases of parasitism cause rapid decline and death of the host. As a footnote, the pathogenic bacteria Vibrio has been found attached to some copepods' exoskeletons (though not specifically 'coral' copepods or any Vibrio species known to infect scleractinians).

Food for thought here.

Comments about Information in the Following Database

The following lists include information on copepod maximum sizes, specimen color, as well as drawings. First, my renderings are crude reproductions of excellent camera lucida drawings made by copepod researchers Humes, Stock and others. In all cases, those wishing to identify copepods should refer to the original papers.

  • Maximum lengths are reported for most of the following taxa. These lengths do not include the length of the 'tail' (fural rami). Bear in mind that these listings are based on sometimes limited observations of just a few specimens. In a couple of cases, only one sex of a particular species has been collected, and sometimes described from a single specimen
  • Color is listed for many taxa, and these are based on the apparent color of the copepod when light is transmitted through a specimen by a microscope lamp. Color due to transmitted light is different from the color when light is reflected. To further complicate matters, the parasite might incorporate into its tissues those pigments obtained from the host (as is probably the case in red Orstomella copepods feeding on Favia tissues). Some of these pigments might be fluorescent (see Figure 140) and spectral quality of the light falling upon the animal and the quantum yield of the pigment can alter the perceived color.
  • Coral species are listed as described in the original papers. Coral taxonomy remains in a constant state of flux, and I have made little attempt to revise the descriptions as listed in the original journal papers.
  • Copepod classifications are occasionally revised, and this has occurred since some of the initial descriptions were published. For example, parasites of the genus Lichomolgus, although plentiful in early publications, have all been assigned to other genera. This website was used as a reference of revisions: WoRMS (World Register of Marine Species) at http://www.marinespecies.org/
  • Lateral views (taken from the side), dorsal views (from the top looking down) and ventral views (from the bottom looking up) reveal differing portraits of 'bugs'. Be aware that the angle of observation can show profoundly differing portraits.
  • Do not assume that one bug is representative of all those on a coral colony. Humes (1994) states that single colonies of Acropora hyacinthus, A. gravida, and Montipora undata were each found to host up to 9 parasitic Xarifia species.
  • Arthur Humes, the late guru of copepods, found that identifying copepods to the species level is much easier if female specimens are used.

Now that we have some background on copepods, we can begin our discussion of coral parasites.

Stony Coral Parasites

Copepods of Order Cyclopoida

image015.jpg

Corallonoxia and Corallovexia have been described from only Atlantic corals. You may wonder why Atlantic parasites are included in an article for reef hobbyists since most but not all corals from this regional are illegal to possess. A few corals (such as Manicina areolata, sea whips, sea fans, etc. or those found on 'farmed' live rock) are legally available, hence the inclusion of Atlantic parasites here.

Corallonoxia baki

  • Host: Eusmilia fastigata
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallonoxia longicauda

  • Host: Meandrina meandrites
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallovexia brevibrachium

  • Host: Diploria labyrinthformis
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallovexia dorospina

  • Host: Montastrea cavernosa
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975
image017.jpg

Figure 8. Montastrea cavernosa, an Atlantic coral species, may be infested with the parasitic copepod Corallovexia dorospina. Photo courtesy Jake Adams and www.coralIDea.com

Corallovexia kristenseni

  • Host: Colpophyllia natans
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallovexia longibrachium

  • Host: Manicina areolata
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975
image019.jpg

Figure 9. Manicina areolata is the preferred host of the parasite Corallovexia longibrachium. These Atlantic corals are now legally available in the pet trade. Photo courtesy of Jake Adams and www.coralIDea.com.

Corallovexia mediobrachium

  • Host: Diploria strigosa
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallovexia mixtibrachium

  • Host: Colpophyllia natans
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Corallovexia similis

  • Host: Acropora palmata
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975
image021.jpg

Figure 10. The endangered coral Acropora palmata is sometimes home to the parasitic copepod Corallovexia similis. These corals may someday be available to hobbyists as techniques of raising planula larvae are refined. Photo courtesy of Jake Adams and www.CoralIDea.com.

Corallovexia ventrospinosa

  • Host: Montastrea brasiliana
  • Order Cyclopoida
  • Family Corallovexiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Maximum Reported Size: ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: West Indies (Atlantic)
  • Reference: Stock, 1975

Stony Coral Parasites

Copepods of Order Poecilostomatoida

image023.jpg

Now, to begin our brief review of known parasites of Pacific corals, beginning with:

Amarda compta

  • Host: Favia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.20mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.85mm
  • Color: Opaque, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972
image025.jpg

Figure 11. Amarda compta, dorsal view.

Amarda cultrata

  • Host: Favia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.68mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.37mm
  • Color: Opaque, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972
image027.jpg

Figure 12. Amarda cultrata, male, ventral view.

Amarda curvus

  • Host: Goniastrea retiformis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007
  • Amarda goniastraea
  • Host: Goniastrea retiformis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

Anchimolgus abbreviatus

  • Host: Acrhelia horrescens
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991
  • Anchimolgus angustus
  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1992

Anchimolgus brevarius

  • Host: Goniopora stokesi
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1995
  • Anchimolgus compressus
  • Host: Galaxea fascicularis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1996

Anchimolgus conformatus

  • Host: Goniopora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1995
  • Anchimolgus contractus
  • Host: Galaxea fascicularis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1979

Anchimolgus convexus

  • Host: Parahalometra robusta
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978
  • Anchimolgus digitatus
  • Host: Goniopora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.0mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.62mm
  • Color: Translucent, dark red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a
image029.jpg

Figure 13. Anchimolgus digitatus, a parasite of Goniopora specimens.

Anchimolgus eparmatoides

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972

Anchimolgus exsertus

  • Host: Echinophyllia horrida
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991

Anchimolgus gibberulus

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1992

Anchimolgus gigas

  • Host: Goniopora stokesi
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1995

Anchimolgus gracilipes

  • Host: Pavona danai
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Anchimolgus hastatus

  • Host: Fungia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Anchimolgus latens

  • Host: Fungia echinata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Anchimolgus maximus

  • Host: Fungia cocinnia
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003
image031.jpg

Figure 14. Fungia cocinnia is subject to stress by parasitic copepods. Photo courtesy Steve Ruddy and www.coralreefecosystems.com

Anchimolgus mimeticus

  • Host: Goniopora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1995

Anchimolgus moluccanus

  • Host: Galaxea fascicularis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1996

Anchimolgus multidentatus

  • Host: Alveopora catalai
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Anchimolgus nastuas

  • Host: Galaxea fascicularis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1996

Anchimolgus noumensis

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Anchimolgus orectus

  • Host: Fungia paumotensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Anchimolgus pandus

  • Host: Fungia echinata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Anchimolgus paragensis

  • Host: Hydnophora microconus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Anchimolgus prolixipes

  • Host: Porites (andrewsi?) and Porites nigrescens
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.15mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.85mm
  • Color: Translucent to opaque, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a
image033.jpg

Figure 15. Anchimolgus prolixipes, dorsal view.

Anchimolgus punctilis

  • Host: Pocillopora damicornis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Anchimolgus stellus

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1972

Anchimolgus tanaus

  • Host: Acrhelia horrescens
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991

Anchimolgus tenuipes

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Anchimolgus tridentatus

  • Host: Echinopora lamellosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Andrianellus exsertidens

  • Host: Favia sp., Platygyra daedala
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.33mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.22mm
  • Color: Opaque, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image035.jpg

Figure 16. Andrianellus exsertidens, lateral view.

Andrianellus papillipes

  • Host: Platygyra ryukyuensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Armadopsis merulinae

  • Host: Merulina ampliata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.57mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.41mm
  • Color: Opaque, intestine orange-red, red eye, egg sacs gray.
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1974
image037.jpg

Figure 17. Armadopsis merulinae, female with eggs, dorsal view.

Cerioxynus alatus

  • Host: Favia favus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.60mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.39mm
  • Color: Opaque, intestine orange-brown, red eye, egg sacs gray.
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1974

Cerioxynus bandensis

  • Host: Favites virens
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1979
image039.jpg

Figure 18. Cerioxymus alatus, found in association with the stony coral Favia.

Cerioxynus favitocolus

  • Host: Favites halicora
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.12mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.88mm
  • Color: Opaque, alimentary canal slightly brown, red eye, egg sacs gray.
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1974
image041.jpg

Figure 19. Cerioxymus favitocolus, female without egg masses, lateral view. After Humes, 1974.

image043.jpg

Figure 20. Cerioxymus favitocolus, female with egg masses, dorsal view.

Cerioxynus moluccensis

  • Host: Favites pentagonia
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Locality: Great Barrier Reef
  • Reference: Humes, 1979

Cerioxynus montastreae

  • Host: Montastrea curta
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Locality: Great Barrier Reef
  • Reference: Humes, 1994

Cerioxynus oulophylliae

  • Host: Oulophyllia crispa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia
  • Reference: Humes, 1994

Dumbeana undulatipes

  • Host: Psammocora togianensis and P. logianensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Locality: Sabiura
  • Reference: Misaki, 1978; Humes, 1996

Ecphysarion ampullulum

  • Host: Acropora rosaria
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Ecphysarion lobophorum

  • Host: Acropora scherzeriana, Acropora cytheria, Acropora florida, Acropora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.36mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.19mm
  • Color: Amber, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Described as Lichomolgus lobophorus, Humes and Ho, 1968a
  • Also described elsewhere as Schedomolgus lobophorus.
image045.jpg

Figure 21. Ecphysarion lobophorum, female with eggs, dorsal view.

Ecphysarion spinulatum

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Gelastomolgus spondyli

  • Host: Plerogyra sp.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.16mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.59mm
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
  • Comment: There is some suspicion that Plerogyra is not the primary host of this copepod, and that its presence may have been accidental.
image047.jpg

Figure 22. Gelastomolgus spondyli, dorsal view.

Haplomolgus incolumis

  • Host: Montipora caliculata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968

Haplomolgus montiporae

  • Host: Montipora sinensis, Montipora stellata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.89mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.90mm
  • Color: Slightly amber, red eye, egg sacs grayish-black
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a
image049.jpg

Figure 23. Haplomolgus montiporae, dorsal view.

Haplomolgus subdeficiens

  • Host: Montipora undata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Humesiella corallicola

  • Host: Hydnophora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: SE Indian Coast
  • Reference: Sebastian and Pillai, 1973
image051.jpg

Figure 24. Humesiella corallicola, male, dorsal view, a parasite of the stony coral Hydnophora. After Sebastian and Pillai, 1973.

Family: Lichomolgidae: Lichomolgus species are often mentioned in early reference works. Since those publications, many species have been assigned to other genera.

Lichomolgus arcuatipes: See Schedomolgus arcuatipes

Lichomolgus campulus: See Odontomolgus campulus

Lichomolgus crassus: See Spaniomolgus crassus

Lichomolgus digitatus: SeeAnchiomolgus digitatus

Lichomolgus geminus: See Spaniomolgus geminus

Lichomolgus prolixipes: See Anchiomolgus prolixipes

Lichomolgus lobophorus: See Ecphysarion lobophorum (Also described as Schedomolgus lobophorus)

Lipochaetes extrusus

  • Host: Psammocora logianensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1996

Odontomolgus actinophorus

  • Host: Pavona angularis, Pavona angulata, Pavona cactus, Pavona danai, and Pavona venusta
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: Red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image053.jpg

Figure 25. Odontomolgus actinophorus, female with eggs.

Odontomolgus bulbalis

  • Host: Merulina ampliata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991

Odontomolgus campulus

  • Host: Alveopora sp. and Goniopora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.26mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.17mm
  • Color: Slightly opaque, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a
image055.jpg

Figure 26. Odontomolgus campulus, an associate of at least one Alveopora species.

Odontomolgus decens

  • Host: Heliofungia actiniformis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes & Stock, 1972
image057.jpg

Figure 27. Odontomolgus decens can infest Heliofungia actiniformis.

Odontomolgus exilipes

  • Host: Psammocora samoensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Odontomolgus flammeus

  • Host: Fungia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Odontomolgus forhani

  • Host: Montipora compressa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972

Odontomolgus fultus

  • Host: Halomitra pileus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972

Odontomolgus geminus

  • Host: Psammocora samoensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Odontomolgus mucosus

  • Host: Gardineroseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2006

Odontomolgus mundulus

  • Host: Alveopora mortenseni
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1974

Odontomolgus parvus

  • Host: Goniastrea retiformis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Odontomolgus pavonus

  • Host: Pavona danai
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Odontomolgus pumulis

  • Host: Gardineroseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1992

Odontomolgus rhadinus

  • Host: Psammocora contigua, Psammocora spp. and Pavona sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: Red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973

Odontomolgus scitulus

  • Host: Fungia fungites
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1973

Odontomolgus unioviger

  • Host: Gardineroseris planulata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2006

Panjakus bidentis

  • Host: Pocillopora verrucosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2004

Panjakus directis

  • Host: Leptoria tenuis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1995

Panjakus eumeces

  • Host: Hydnophora rigida
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991
image059.jpg

Figure 28. Hydnophora colonies are subject to infestation by a number of parasitic copepods. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy and www.coralreefecosystems.com.

Panjakus fastigatus

  • Host: Platygyra ryukyuensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2005

Panjakus hydnophorae

  • Hosts: Hydnophora exesa, Hydnophora tenella, Hydnophora sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.42mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.33mm
  • Color: Brownish opaque with a few reddish-brown spots, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image061.jpg

Figure 29. Panjakus hydnophorae, a parasite of Hydnophora species.

Panjakus iratus

  • Host: Hydnophora microconus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2005

Panjakus necopinus

  • Host: Leptoria tenuis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1995

Panjakus parvipes

  • Host: Platygyra ryukyuensis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2005

Panjakus platygyrae

  • Hosts: Platygyra lamellina, Platygyra daedala
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.53mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.36mm
  • Color: Opaque, intestine slightly yellowish, dark red eye
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image063.jpg

Figure 30. Panjakus platygyrae, dorsal view.

Panjakus saccipes

  • Host: Hydnophora microconus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2005

Prionomolgus lanceolatus

  • Host: Pachyseris speciosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.42mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.08mm
  • Color: Translucent, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a
image065.jpg

Figure 31. Prionomolgus lanceolatus, dorsal view.

Rakotoa ceramensis

  • Host: Favites pentagona
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1979

Rakotoa proteus

  • Host: Favia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.64mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.55mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine is reddish, eye is not visible
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image067.jpg

Figure 32. Rakotoa proteus, a parasite of Favia stony corals.

Schedomolgus arcuatipes

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.11mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.28mm
  • Color: Translucent to opaque, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Described as Lichomolgus arcuatipes, Humes and Ho, 1968a
image069.jpg

Figure 33. Schedomolgus arcuatipes, male, dorsal view.

Schedomolgus dumbensis

  • Host: Fungia fungites
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Schedomolgus exiliculus

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Schedomolgus idanus

  • Host: Acropora patula
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Schedomolgus insignellus

  • Host: Acropora valida
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972

Schedomolgus lobophorus: See Ecphysarion lobophorum. Also described as Lichomolgus lobophorum

Schedomolgus majusculus

  • Host: Acropora rosaria
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1972

Schedomolgus tener

  • Host: Fungia echinata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Schedomolgus tenuicaudatus

  • Host: Acropora Rosaria
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Schedomolgus walteri

  • Host: Lobophyllia corymbosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger cyphuliger

  • Host: Acropora exilis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Scyphuliger concavipes

  • Host: Acropora hyacinthus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991

Scyphuliger eumorphus

  • Host: Acropora hyacinthus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Scyphuliger humesi

  • Host: Acropora squarrosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2004

Scyphuliger karangmmiensis

  • Host: Acropora intermedia
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Scyphuliger latus

  • Host: Acropora exilis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger longicaudus

  • Host: Acropora convexa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger manifestus

  • Host: Acropora hyacinthus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1991

Scyphuliger paucisuruculus

  • Host: Acropora exilis
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger pennatus

  • Host: Acropora corymbosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger pilosus

  • Host: Acropora corymbosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2003

Scyphuliger placious

  • Host: Acropora squarrosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2004

Scyphuliger tenuatis

  • Host: Acropora cymbicyanthus
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1990

Scyphuliger vicinus

  • Host: Acropora squarrosa
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2004

Stockia indica

  • Host: Favia sp.
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1994

Unicispina latigenitalis

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Anchimolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1993

Order: Poecilostomatoida

  • Family: Clausidiiae
  • Genera: Hemicyclops

Hemicyclops regalis

  • Host: Porites lobata
  • Order Poecilostomatoida
  • Family Clausidiiae
  • Location: Panama (Pacific)
  • Reference: Humes, 1994

Order: Poecilostomatoida

  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Genera: Diallagomolgus, Kombia, Mandobius, Monomolgus, Ravahina, Spaniomolgus, Xenomolgus, Wedanus

Diallagomolgus productus

  • Host: Cyphastrea chalcidicum and Cyphastrea gardineri
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.43mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.25mm
  • Color: Opaque with a few reddish globules in prosome (body), intestine brown, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1979
image071.jpg

Figure 34. Diallagomolgus productus, male, dorsal view.

Diallagomolgus vicinus

  • Host: Cyphastrea chalcidicum
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.27mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.09mm
  • Color: Opaque, intestine brown, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1979
image073.jpg

Figure 35. Diallagomolgus vicinus found onCyphastrea chalcidicum.

Kombia angulata

  • Host: Psammocora sp., Porites nigrescens, and Porites somaliensis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Location: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1962
image001.jpg

Figure 36. Kombia angulata. Kombia species are known parasites of Porites and Psammocora corals.

Kombia avitus

  • Host: Porites sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Kim, 2007

Kombia curvata

  • Host: Porites lutea
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Nair and Pillai, 1986

Kombia imminens

  • Host: Porites monticulosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1962

Kombia incrassata

  • Host: Porites lobata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1984

Mandobius regalis

  • Host: Pectinia lactuca
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1994

Monomolgus baculigeres

  • Host: Porites nigrescens
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1979

Monomolgus psammocorae

  • Host: Psammocora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: Red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973

Monomolgus torulus

  • Host: Porites lobata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1984

Monomolgus unihastatus

  • Host: Porites (andrewsi?), Porites (nigrescens?), Porites sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: Red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image076.jpg

Figure 37. Monomolgus unihastatus, female, dorsal view.

Numboa porosa

  • Host: Psammocora togianensis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: ?
  • Reference: Humes 1997

Ravahina tumida

Host: Porites (andrewsi?)

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): Unknown
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image078.jpg

Figure 38. Ravahina tumida, a 'specialist' parasite of a specific Porites species.

Spaniomolgus compositus

  • Host: Seriatopora octoptera, Seriatopora subseriata, Seriatopora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image080.jpg

Figure 39. Spaniomolgus compositus, a parasite of Seriatopora species.

Spaniomolgus crassus

  • Host: Stylophora pistillata, Stylophora mordax, Acropora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.44mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.25mm
  • Color: Translucent to opaque with reddish amber areas at base of antennae, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Described as Lichomolgus crassus, Humes and Ho, 1968a
image082.jpg

Figure 40. Spaniomolgus crassus found on some SPS corals.

Spaniomolgus geminus

  • Host: Stylophora pistillata, Stylophora mordax, Stylophora sp. and Acropora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.61mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.55mm
  • Color: Translucent, red eye, egg sacs Gray
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Described as Lichomolgus geminus, Humes and Ho, 1968a
image084.jpg

Figure 41. Spaniomolgus geminus, lateral view.

Wedanus inconstans

  • Host: Goniopora tenuidens
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Reference: Humes, 1978

Xenomolgus varius

  • Host: Porites sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Rhynchomolgidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.76mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.21mm
  • Color: Unknown
  • Locality: Maritius Islands
  • Reference: Humes and Stock, 1973
image086.jpg

Figure 42. Xenomolgus varius, dorsal view.

image088.jpg

Figure 43. Xenomolgus varius, lateral view.

This concludes our discussion of stony coral parasites for this time. We'll examine other 'bugs' in next month's installment. Questions? Comments? Please respond in the comment section below.

Table Two. Listing of Coral Hosts and Copepod Parasites (by species).
Coral Parasite
Acrhelia horrescens Anchimolgus abbreviatus
Acrhelia horrescens Anchimolgus tenuipes
Acropora convexa Scyphuliger longicaudus
Acropora corymbosa Scyphuliger pennatus
Acropora corymbosa Scyphuliger pilosus
Acropora cymbicyanthus Scyphuliger tenuatis
Acropora exigua Ecphysarion lobophorum
Acropora exilis Scyphuliger aristoides
Acropora exilis Scyphuliger latus
Acropora exilis Scyphuliger paucisurculus
Acropora hyacinthus Scyphuliger concavipes
Acropora hyacinthus Scyphuliger eumorphus
Acropora hyacinthus Scyphuliger manifestus
Acropora intermedia Scyphuliger karangmiensis
Acropora palifera Ecphysarion spinulatum
Acropora palifera Schedomolgus exciliculus
Acropora palifera Unicispina latigentalis
Acropora palmata Corallavexia similis
Acropora palmata Corallovexia sp.
Acropora patula Schedomolgus idanus
Acropora rosaria Ecphysarion ampullulum
Acropora squarrosa (millepora) Scyphuliger humesi
Acropora squarrosa (millepora) Scyphuliger placidus
Acropora squarrosa (millepora) Scyphuliger vicinus
Alveopora catalai Anchimolgus multidentatus
Alveopora mortensi Odontomolgus mundulus
Colpophyllia natans Corallavexia kristenseni
Colpophyllia natans Corallavexia mixtibrachium
Colpophyllia natans Corallovexia mediobrachium
Cyphastrea sp. Diallagomolgus sp.
Diploria clivosa Corallovexia mediobrachium
Diploria labyrinthformis Corallavexia brevibrachium
Diploria strigosa Corallavexia mediobrachium
Echinopora horrida Anchimolgus exsertus
Echinopora lamellosa Anchimolgus tridentatus
Eusmilia fastigata Corallonoxia baki
Favia favus Cerioxynus alatus
Favia sp. Amarda sp.
Favia sp. Anchimolgus sp.
Favia sp. Andrianellus exsertidens
Favia sp. Rakotoa proteus
Favia sp. Stockia sp.
Favites halicora Cerioxynus faviticolus
Favites pentagona Cerioxynus moluccensis
Favites pentagona Rakotoa ceramensis
Favites virens Cerioxynus bandensis
Fungia concinna Anchimolgus maximus
Fungia echinata Anchimolgus latens
Fungia echinata Anchimolgus pandus
Fungia echinata Schedomolgus tener
Fungia fungites Odontomolgus scitulus
Fungia fungites Schedomolgus dumbensis
Fungia paumotensis Anchimolgus orectus
Fungia paumotensis Anchimolgus punctilis
Fungia species Anchimolgus hastatus
Fungia species Odontomolgus flammeus
Galaxea fascicularis Anchimolgus compressus
Galaxea fascicularis Anchimolgus contractus
Galaxea fascicularis Anchimolgus molccanus
Galaxea fascicularis Anchimolgus nastuas
Gardineroseris planulata Anchimolgus angustus
Gardineroseris planulata Anchimolgus eparmatoides
Gardineroseris planulata Anchimolgus giiberulus
Gardineroseris planulata Anchimolgus setellus
Gardineroseris planulata Odontomolgus mucosus
Gardineroseris planulata Odontomolgus pumulis
Gardineroseris planulata Odontomolgus unioviger
Goniastrea retiformis Amarda curvus
Goniastrea retiformis Amarda goniastraea
Goniastrea retiformis Odontomolgus parvus
Goniopora minor Wedanus inconstans
Goniopora minor Wedanus formosanus
Goniopora species Anchimolgus conformatus
Goniopora species Anchimolgus mimeticus
Goniopora stokesi Anchimolgus brevarius
Goniopora stokesi Anchimolgus gigas
Goniopora tenuidens Wedanus inconstans
Halomitra pileus Odontomolgus fultus
Heliofungia actinoformis Odontomolgus decens
Hydnophora exesa Panjakus hydnophorae
Hydnophora microconus Anchimolgus paragensis
Hydnophora microconus Panjakus iratus
Hydnophora microconus Panjakus saccipes
Hydnophora rigida Panjakus eumeces
Hydnophora sp. Humesiella corallicola
Hydnophora sp. Panjakus hydnophorae
Hydnophora sp. Panjakus sp.
Hydnophora tenella Panjakus hydnophorae
Leptoria tenuis Panjakus directus
Leptoria tenuis Panjakus necopinus
Manicina areolata Corallavexia longibrachium
Meandrina meandrites Corallonoxia baki
Meandrina meandrites Corallovexia sp.
Merulina ampliata Odontomolgus bulbalis
Montastrea brasiliana Corallavexia ventrospina
Montastrea cavernosa Corallavexia dorsospinosa
Montastrea cavernosa Corallavexia dorsospinosa minor
Montastrea cavernosa Corallovexia sp.
Montastrea curta Cerioxynus montastreae
Montipora caliculata Haplomolgus incolumis
Montipora compressa Odontomolgus forhani
Montipora undata Haplomolgus subdeficiens
Mycetophyllia lamarckiana Corallovexia sp.
Mycetophyllia lamarckiana Corallovexia sp. #2
Oulophyllia crispa Cerioxynus oulophillia
Parahalomitra robusta Anchimolgus convexus
Pavona angularis Odontomolgus actinophorus
Pavona angulata Odontomolgus actinophorus
Pavona cactus Odontomolgus actinophorus
Pavona danai Anchimolgus gracilipes
Pavona danai Odontomolgus actinophorus
Pavona danai Odontomolgus pavonus
Pavona venusta Odontomolgus actinophorus
Pectinia lactuca Mandobius regalis
Platygyra astreiformis Panjakus platygyrae
Platygyra daedala Andrianellus exsertidens
Platygyra daedala Panjakus daedala
Platygyra lamellina Panjakus platygyrae
Platygyra ryukyuensis Andrianellus papillipes
Platygyra ryukyuensis Panjakus fastigatus
Platygyra ryukyuensis Panjakus parvipes
Platygyra sp. Panjakus sp.
Pocillopora damicornis Anchimolgus partenuides
Pocillopora verrucosa Panjakus bidentis
Porites (andrewsi?) Monomolgus unihastatus
Porites (nigrescens?) Monomolgus unihastatus
Porites lobata Hemicyclops regalis
Porites lobata Kombia incrassata
Porites lobata Monomolgus torulus
Porites lutea Kombia curvata
Porites monticulosa Kombia imminens
Porites nigrescens Monomolgus baculigeres
Porites sp. Kombia avitus
Psammocora contigua Odontomolgus actinophorus
Psammocora contigua Odontomolgus rhadinus
Psammocora logianensis Dumbeana undulatipes
Psammocora samoensis Odontomolgus exilipes
Psammocora samoensis Odontomolgus geminus
Psammocora sp. Kombia angulata
Psammocora sp. Monomolgus psammocorae
Seriatopora hystrix Anchimolgus noumensis
Seriatopora hystrix Anchiomolgus tenuipes
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