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You are here: Home Volume IX February 2010 Aquarium Corals: Stony Coral Parasites, Part Two: Copepods: Family Xarifiidae

Aquarium Corals: Stony Coral Parasites, Part Two: Copepods: Family Xarifiidae

By Dana Riddle Posted Feb 14, 2010 07:00 PM Pomacanthus Publications, Inc.
Dana continues last month's discussion about copepods.

Last month's article opened this series, and this time we will continue our study of parasitic copepods belonging to Family Xarifiidae. These animals are, as a rule, larger and more numerous (species-wise) than those parasites discussed in Part One. They also tend to infest corals internally (often within the polyps) or assume the color of the coral (likely through ingestion of coral tissues), making them difficult to spot and diagnose. Worse, we are not sure if accepted methods of treating corals for parasites are effective against these bugs. Table One (at the conclusion of this article) lists Xarifiid copepods in order of coral host(s).

I've elected to continue the numbering protocol of Figures established in the initial article; hence the first drawing here is Figure 44. See Part One for a distribution map of some Xarifiid taxa. With that said, let's get started.

  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
    • Family: Xarifiidae
      • Genera: Lipochrus, Orstomella, Xarifia, Zazaranus
image001.jpg

Figure 44. Xarifia obesa, female, with egg sacs.

Family Xarifidae contains four genera (Xarifia, Orstomella, Lipochrus, and Zazaranus) with at least 80 described species. All species are known parasites of stony corals and some may form an association with a specific coral.

Method of Infection (Xarifiid Copepods)

Chang and Dai (2009) made observations of a stony coral's (Stylophora pistillata) reactions to a deliberate infection with a xarifiid crustacean. The copepods would approach the coral polyp's mouth and apparently released a substance that made the polyp open (it is unknown if this substance mimics one that induces feeding behavior, or acts as a muscle relaxant). The copepod then rapidly enters the coral through the mouth and begins its parasitic existence. How the copepod avoids being stung and injured or killed by the tentacles' nematocysts is unclear. It is also unclear if other coral species are infected in a similar manner. In any case, it is clear that at least some crustaceans can be internal parasites of corals.

Lipochrus acroporinus

  • Host: Acropora rosaria
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Reference: Humes and Dojiri, 1982

Orstomella faviae

  • Host: Favia sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.26mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.24mm
  • Color: Bright Red
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image003.jpg

Figure 45. Orstomella faviae, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

image005.jpg

Figure 46. A beautiful Favia species. Imagine losing a coral such as this to an Orstomella infestation! Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy and www.coralreefecosystems.com.

Orstomella lobophylliae

  • Host: Lobophyllia corymbosa and Lobophyllia costata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.31mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.45mm
  • Color: Bright Red
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image007.jpg

Figure 47. Orstomella lobophylliae, male, dorsal view.

Orstomella yaliuensis

  • Host: Porites lutea
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Locality: Taiwan
  • Reference: Chen et al., 2009

Xarifia ablusa

  • Hosts: Acropora species, including A. 'corymbosa' (a complex of 5 or 6 species, possibly including A. digitifera), A. elseyi, A. rambleri, and A. rosaria.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.06mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.03mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image009.jpg

Figure 48. Xarifia ablusa, female with eggs, lateral view.

Xarifia acicularis

  • Hosts: Pachyseris rugosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.06mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.03mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, eye red
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image011.jpg

Figure 49. Xarifia acicularis, male, dorsal view.

Xarifia anomala

  • Hosts: Acropora species, including A. abrotanoides, A. convexa, A. digitifera (?), Acropora florida, A. humilis, A. hyacinthus, A. intermeda, A. palifera and at least one unidentified Acropora species.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.26mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.25mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia, Madagascar, Moluccas
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image013.jpg

Figure 50. Xarifia anomala, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

image015.jpg

Figure 51. Xarifia anomala, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia anopla

  • Hosts: Montipora undata, Montipora composita, and Montipora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.08mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.93mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef), Madagascar, Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image017.jpg

Figure 52. Xarifia anopla, female, lateral view.

Xarifia apertipes

  • Hosts: Gyrosmilia interrupta and Montipora verrucosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.59mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.49mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image019.jpg

Figure 53. Xarifia apertipes, female, lateral view.

Xarifia basilica

  • Hosts: Acropora formosa, Acropora hyacinthus
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.5mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.7mm
  • Color: Brownish-gray, red eye
  • Locality: Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image021.jpg

Figure 54. Xarifia basilica, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia brevicauda

  • Host: Alveopora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.35mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.51mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image023.jpg

Figure 55. Xarifia brevicauda, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia breviramea

  • Host: Acropora abrotanoides, Acropora corymbosa 'group', Acropora exigua, Acropora florida, Acropora hyacinthus, Acropora intermedia, Acropora millepora, Acropora rambleri, and Acropora valida.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.79mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.93mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Eniwetok Atoll (Marshall Islands), Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia.
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image025.jpg

Figure 56. Xarifia breviramea

image027.jpg

Figure 57. Contrary to popular belief, many Acropora specimens are subject to parasite infestations (this specimen is not infested, just very attractive). Photo courtesy of Justin Miedwig and www.madfragsonline.com

Xarifia bullifera

  • Host: Acropora formosa (now muricata)
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.45mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.43mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye
  • Locality: Eniwetok Atoll, Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image029.jpg

Figure 58. Xarifia bullifera, female, lateral view.

Xarifia clavellata

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.94mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.80mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye
  • Locality: Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image031.jpg

Figure 59. Xarifia clavellata, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia comata

  • Host: Pocillopora eydouxi, Pocillopora verrucosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.22mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.18mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands, Madagascar, Great Barrier Reef
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image033.jpg

Figure 60. Xarifia comata, female, lateral view.

Xarifia comptula

  • Host: Hydnophora exesa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.16mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.62mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands, Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image035.jpg

Figure 61. Xarifia comptula, female, lateral view.

Xarifia curtata

  • Host: Hydnophora exesa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 3.19mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 3.55mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image037.jpg

Figure 62. Xarifia curtata, female, lateral view.

Xarifia decorata

  • Hosts: Stylophora species, including S. mordax, S. pistillata, and one Stylophora specimen not indentified to the species level.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.53mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.28mm
  • Color: Opaque, intestine reddish-brown, red eye
  • Locality: Madagascar, Mauritius Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image039.jpg

Figure 63. Xarifia decorata, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

image041.jpg

Figure 64. Xarifia decorata, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia diminuta

  • Host: Psammocora contigua and Pavona species
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.18mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.35mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar, Mauritius Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image043.jpg

Figure 65. Xarifia diminuta, female, lateral view.

Xarifia disbar

  • Host: Echinophyllia gemmacea, Echinophyllia lamellose, Echinophyllia sp. andPlatygyra species.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.46mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.46mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image045.jpg

Figure 66. Xarifia dispar, female, lateral view.

Xarifia dissona

  • Host: Stylophora pistillata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.45mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): Unknown
  • Color: Female: Gray, dark brown intestine, red eye
  • Locality: Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image047.jpg

Figure 67. Xarifia dissona, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia echinoporae

  • Host: Echinopora horrida and E. lamellose
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.39mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.56mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia, Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image049.jpg

Figure 68. Xarifia echinoporae, female, lateral view.

Xarifia eminula

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.10mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.17mm
  • Color: Gray, red eye.
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image051.jpg

Figure 69. Xarifia eminula, female, dorsal view.

image053.jpg

Figure 70. Xarifia eminula, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia exserens

  • Host: Galaxea fascicularis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.50mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.46mm
  • Color: Gray, intestine reddish gray, red eye.
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image055.jpg

Figure 71. Xarifia exserens (lateral view) from the "Galaxy" stony coral (Galaxea fascicularis). After Humes, 1985.

Xarifia exigua

  • Host: Pachyseris speciosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.80mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.85mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image057.jpg

Figure 72. Xarifia exigua, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

image059.jpg

Figure 73. Xarifia exigua, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia extensa

  • Host: Montipora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.72mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.99mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image061.jpg

Figure 74. Xarifia extens, lateral view.

Xarifia exuta

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.49mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.46mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image063.jpg

Figure 75. Xarifia exuta

Xarifia fastigata

  • Host: Acropora rosaria and Acropora elseyi
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.53mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.56mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image065.jpg

Figure 76. Xarifia fastigata

Xarifia filata

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.95mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.09mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye
  • Locality: Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image067.jpg

Figure 77. Xarifia filata, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia fimbriata

  • Host: Pocillopora species, including P. damicornis, P. eydouxi, and unidentified Pocillopora species.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.45mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.42 mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image069.jpg

Figure 78. Xarifia fimbriata, female with eggs, lateral view

Xarifia finitima

  • Host: Pavona cactus and Pavona varians
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.09 mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.0 mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, eggs greenish
  • Locality: Mauritius Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image071.jpg

Figure 79. Xarifia finitima, female, lateral view. Note the mandible.

Xarifia fissilis

  • Host: Pocillopora damicornis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.93mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.71mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine gray, red eye
  • Locality: Moluccas
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
  • Comment: X. fissilis has been found to contain zooxanthellae, mostly likely obtained from its host coral (Cheng and Dai, 2009b).
image073.jpg

Figure 80. Xarifia fissilis, female, lateral view.

image075.jpg

Figure 81. Xarifia fissilis, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia formosa

  • Host: Psammocora digitata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.19mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.41mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine reddish-brown, red eye, eggs gray
  • Locality: Eniwetok Atoll (Marshall Islands), New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image077.jpg

Figure 82. Xarifia formosa, female, dorsal view. After Humes, 1985.

Xarifia gerlachi

  • Host: Acropora species, including the A. corymbosa complex, A. cytheria, A. florida, A. hyacinthus, Acropora teres and an Acropora specimennot identified to the species level.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.40mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.96mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image079.jpg

Figure 83. Xarifia gerlachi, female, lateral view.

Xarifia gibberula

  • Host: Pocillopora verrucosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.38mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.32mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, eggs dull orange
  • Locality: Bowl Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image081.jpg

Figure 84. Xarifia gibberula, female, dorsal view. After Humes, 1985.

Xarifia gracilipes

  • Host: Euphyllia glabrescens
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.16mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.16mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image083.jpg

Figure 85. Xarifia gracilipes, female, lateral view.

image085.jpg

Figure 86. Large-polyp stony corals (such as this Euphyllia glabrescens) can be infested by parasites. Photo by the author.

Xarifia gradata

  • Host: Physogyra sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.33mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.20mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image087.jpg

Figure 87. Xarifia gradata

Xarifia guttulifera

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.46mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.59mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image089.jpg

Figure 88. Xarifia guttulifera

Xarifia hadra

  • Host: Goniopora tenuidens and Goniopora pedunculata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.79mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.86mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image091.jpg

Figure 89. Xarifia hadra

Xarifia hamata

  • Host: Turbinaria sp. (T. elegans?)
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.42mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.56mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image093.jpg

Figure 90. Xarifia hamata, female with eggs, lateral view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia heteromeles

  • Host: Montipora undata and Montipora composita
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.98mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.00mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image095.jpg

Figure 91. Xarifia heteromeles, female with egg sac, lateral view.

Xarifia imitans

  • Host: Psammocora digitata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.01mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.12mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine reddish-brown, red eye, eggs gray
  • Locality: Marshall Islands and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image097.jpg

Figure 92. Xarifia imitans, female, lateral view. After Humes, 1985

Xarifia imparilis

  • Host: Pocillopora species, including P. damicornis, P. eydouxi, and P. verrucosa.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.57mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.38mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, eggs sacs gray
  • Locality: Marshall Islands (Eniwetok), New Caledonia, Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image099.jpg

Figure 93. Xarifia imparilis, female, lateral view. After Humes.

Xarifia infrequens

  • Host: Acropora 'corymbosa' complex, Acropora cytheria, and Acropora hyacinthus.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.54mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.27mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar; Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image101.jpg

Figure 94. Xarifia infrequens

Xarifia jugalis

  • Host: Pocillopora damicornis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.36mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.32mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, gray eggs
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image103.jpg

Figure 95. Xarifia jugalis, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia lacerans

  • Host: Turbinaria danae
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.12mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.19mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine slightly orange-red, red eye, egg sacs reddish-gray
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image105.jpg

Figure 96. Xarifia lacerans, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia lamellispinosa

  • Host: Pachyseris speciosa
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.00mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.83mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar and Mauritius Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image107.jpg

Figure 97. Xarifia lamellispinosa, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

image109.jpg

Figure 98. Xarifia lamellispinosa, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia levis

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.13mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.98mm
  • Color: Light slightly tan, red eye, orange-red eggs
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image111.jpg

Figure 99. Xarifia levis, dorsal view.

Xarifia lissa

  • Host: Stylophora species, including S. mordax, S. pistillata and at least one specimen not identified to the species level.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.50mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.32mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar and Mauritius Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image113.jpg

Figure 100. Xarifia lissa, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia loonies

  • Host: Pavona angulata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.56mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.50mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image115.jpg

Figure 101. Xarifia longipes, female, lateral view.

Xarifia maldivensis

  • Host: Pocillopora eydouxi species
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.46mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.28mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Maldives Islands and Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image117.jpg

Figure 102. Xarifia maldivensis

Xarifia mediolobata

  • Host: Alveopora mortenseni
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.89mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.59mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image119.jpg

Figure 103. Xarifia mediolobata

Xarifia minax

  • Host: Physogyra (lichensteini?)
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.46mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.66mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image121.jpg

Figure 104. Xarifia minax

Xarifia mucronata

  • Host: Acropora palifera
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.36mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.86mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image123.jpg

Figure 105. Xarifia mucronata

Xarifia obesa

  • Hosts: Pocillopora, Seriatopora, and Stylophora species, including P. damicornis,
  • P. danae, P. eydouxi, P. verrucosa, Seriatopora hystrix, Stylophora pistillata, and Stylophora pistillata var. palmata.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.48mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.30mm
  • Color: Tan/gray, red eye, egg sacs reddish-gray (based on photo in Cheng and Dai, 2009)
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands, Madagascar, Mauritius Islands, multiple GBR locations.
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image125.jpg

Figure 106. Xarifia obesa, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

image127.jpg

Figure 107. Xarifia obesa, male, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia pectinea

  • Host: Acropora and Montipora species, including Acropora florida, Acropora humilis, Acropora hyacinthus, Acropora intermedia, Acropora patula, Acropora rambleri, and Montipora ramosa.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.83mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.66mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas, New Caledonia, Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image129.jpg

Figure 108. Xarifia pectinea, female, lateral view.

Xarifia plectrata

  • Host: Acrhelia horrescens
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.03mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.92mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, eggs light brownish-gray
  • Locality: Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image131.jpg

Figure 109. Xarifia plectrata, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia quinaria

  • Host: Pocillopora damicornis
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.35mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.12mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, egg sacs gray with orange globules in eggs
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image133.jpg

Figure 110. Xarifia quinaria, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia radians

  • Host: Alveopora mortenseni
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.39mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.49mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image135.jpg

Figure 111. Xarifia radians

Xarifia rasilis

  • Host: Gardinoseris planulata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.91mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): unknown
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye
  • Locality: Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image137.jpg

Figure 112. Xarifia rasilis, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia reducta

  • Host: Seriatopora caliendrum
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.12mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.97mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image139.jpg

Figure 113. Xarifia reducta

Xarifia resex

  • Host: Goniopora tenuidens and Goniopora sp.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.39mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.66mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar and Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image141.jpg

Figure 114. Xarifia resex, female, lateral view.

Xarifia rosariae

  • Host: Acropora rosaria
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.76mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.53mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image143.jpg

Figure 115. Xarifia rosariae

Xarifia sabiuraensis

  • Host: Acropora species, including A. abrotanoides, A. convexa, A. florida,
  • Acropora hyacinthus, A. intermedia, A. patula and A. rambleri.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.66mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.44mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Japan, Marshall Islands, Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image145.jpg

Figure 116. Xarifia sabiuraensis

Xarifia scutipes

  • Host: Goniopora tenuidens and Goniopora pedunculata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.09mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.09mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image147.jpg

Figure 117. Xarifia scutipes

Xarifia sectilis

  • Host: Pocillopora and Stylophora species, including P. damicornis, P. eydouxi, and Stylophora pistillata.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.93mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.69mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, dark greenish-gray eggs
  • Locality: Marshall Islands, New Caledonia, Big Broadhurst Reef, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image149.jpg

Figure 118. Xarifia sectilis, male, dorsal view.

Xarifia serrata

  • Host: Pocillopora and Stylophora species, including P. damicornis, P. verrucosa, and Stylophora subseriata.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.40mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.55mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar and Mauritius Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image151.jpg

Figure 119. Xarifia serrata

Xarifia simplex

  • Host: Scapophyllia cylindrica
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.93mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 2.23mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image153.jpg

Figure 120. Xarifia simplex, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia syntoma

  • Host: Montipora undata
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.81mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.00mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image155.jpg

Figure 121. Xarifia syntoma

Xarifia temnura

  • Host: Montipora species, including M. ramosa, M. sinensis, and M. undata.
  • Order: Poecilostomatoida
  • Family: Xarifiidae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.65mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.50mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar, Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image157.jpg

Figure 122. Xarifia temnura, female, dorsal view. After Humes and Ho, 1968.

Xarifia tenta

  • Host: Pocillopora species, including P. verrucosa and P. ligulata
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.08mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.94mm
  • Color: Opaque gray to tan, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Marshall Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image159.jpg

Figure 123. Xarifia tenta, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia tenuis

  • Host: Acropora cytheria
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.48mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.30mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image161.jpg

Figure 124. Xarifia tenuis, female, lateral view.

Xarifia torigera

  • Host: Favites flexuosa
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 2.43mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): Unknown
  • Color: Pale brown, orange-brown intestine, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image163.jpg

Figure 125. Xarifia torigera, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia trituberata

  • Host: Acropora species, including A. abrotanoides, A. 'corymbosa' group, A. florida, A. humilis, A. hyacinthus, A. intermedia, A. patula, and A. rambleri.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.53mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.66mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands and New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image165.jpg

Figure 126. Xarifia trituberata

Xarifia tumorisa

  • Host: Acropora species, including A. 'corymbosa' group, A. elseyi, A. florida,
  • A. hyacinthus and A. intermedia.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.39mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.39mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: Japan, Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia, Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image167.jpg

Figure 127. Xarifia tumorisa

Xarifia bumboat

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.22mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.06mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, red eye
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image169.jpg

Figure 128. Xarifia umbonata, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia uncinata

  • Host: Turbinaria danae
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.65mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.84mm
  • Color: Opaque gray, intestine slightly orange-red, red eye, egg sacs reddish-gray
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image171.jpg

Figure 129. Xarifia unicata, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia varilabrata

  • Host: Seriatopora hystrix
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.88mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.90mm
  • Color: Pale brown, intestine dark brown, red eye, eggs orange-red
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands, New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image173.jpg

Figure 130. Xarifia varilabrata, female, dorsal view.

Xarifia villosa

  • Host: Cyphastrea chalcidicum
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.12mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.26mm
  • Color:?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985
image175.jpg

Figure 131. Xarifia villosa, female, lateral view.

Zazaranus fungicolus

  • Host: Fungia sp.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: New Caledonia
  • Reference: Humes, 1985

This concludes our discussion of Xarifiid copepods. Next time, we'll look at those bugs all too familiar to many hobbyists - 'red' and 'black' bugs - and will examine methods of treatment.

Questions? Comments? Please leave correspondence in the 'Comment' section below.

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