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You are here: Home Volume IX March 2010 Aquarium Corals: Stony Coral Parasites: Red and Black Bugs: Identification Guide, Preventive Measures, and a Review of Treatment Protocols

Aquarium Corals: Stony Coral Parasites: Red and Black Bugs: Identification Guide, Preventive Measures, and a Review of Treatment Protocols

By Dana Riddle Posted Mar 14, 2010 08:00 PM Pomacanthus Publications, Inc.
This article is but a small tool for use by serious hobbyists in answering many questions.

This month, we'll take a look at something most hobbyists would prefer to never see - coral parasites of genera Alteuthellopsis, Parategastes, and Tegastes (the latter two commonly called 'red' or 'black bugs').

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  • Order: Harpacticoida
    • Family: Peltidiidae
      • Genus: Alteuthellopsis
    • Family: Tegastidae
    • Genus: Parategastes, Tegastes

As a general rule, 'bugs' of Order Harpacticoida are smaller in size than Xarifiid copepods, with a length of about 0.5mm being the maximum size. They are generally considered to be endoparasites and are thought to reside mainly in coral polyps' gastrovascualr cavity.

Order: Harpacticoida; Family: Peltidiidae; Genus: Alteuthellopsis

Alteuthellopsis corallina

  • Hosts: Acropora exigua, Astreopora sp., Goniastrea retiformis, Merulina ampliata, Montipora verilli, Platygyra daedala, Platygyra sp., andPocillopora damicornis.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.63mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.57mm
  • Color: Slightly opaque gray, red eye, egg sacs dark brownish gray.
  • Locality: Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, Lizard Island, GBR
  • Reference: Humes, 1981
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Figure 132. Alteuthellopsis corallina, lateral view.

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Figure 133. Alteuthellopsis corallina, dorsal view.

Order: Harpacticoida; Family: Tegastidae; Genus: Parategastes, Tegastes: Common Name: Red bugs, black bugs

'Red bugs' are the bane of Acropora keepers and it is popular belief among hobbyists that they are the only parasites of stony corals. The 'evil' Tegastes acroporanus has been officially described from but one Acropora species.

Copepods of the family Tegastidae (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) are characterized by a laterally compressed amphipod-like body, a modified male genital area, and nauplii possess a claw-like mandible (Lang 1948, Ivanenko et al. 2008). About 60 species belonging to 6 genera have been described, although those listed as parasitic to corals are small relative to the number of Xarifiid species known to infest corals. As a rule of thumb, Tegastidae copepods are much smaller than xarifiid copepods.

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Figure 134. Tegastes cnidicus. Although not a known coral parasite (this species prefers hydrozoans), its shape is representative of its kind. Lateral view.

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Figure 135. Tegastes cnidicus. Dorsal view.

Except for the deep-sea species Smacigastes micheli (Ivanenko & Defaye 2004), all tegastid species have been found in shallow water habitats in association with algae, bryozoans and/or cnidarians. Not all are animal parasites. For instance, Tegastes nanus is found in association with the red alga Ceranium and brown algae genera Fucus and Laminaria. Tegastes falcatus feeds upon suctorian cilicates found on the bryozoan Flustra foliacea, while T. longimanus is found along sheltered rocky shores and salt lakes. T. acroporanus is a known parasite of at least one coral, the Pacific Acropora species A. florida.

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Figure 136. 'Red Bugs' on an Acropora specimen appear red when they are reflecting light. Photo by the author.

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Figure 137. Note the red coloration concentrated in the caudal ramus, and the reflective eye spot. Are these Tegastes paulipes? Photo courtesy of Greg Ho and www.ximinasphotography.com

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Figure 138. Same coral as that in Figure 137. Notice the bugs within the Acropora's corallites. Are these parasites attempting to enter the coral's gastrovascualr cavities? Or are they being eaten? Photo courtesy of Greg Ho and www.ximinasphotography.com

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Figure 139. A 'red bug' showing a reddish-brown coloration in transmitted light. Compare this to photos below. Photo by the author.

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Figure 140. The same Tegastes specimen as shown in Figure 139 contains a fluorescent protein and appears green when appropriate excitation light is applied. Has this bug incorporated fluorescent proteins obtained from its coral host? Photomicrograph by the author.

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Figure 141. Not all bugs are red, as this 'black' Tegastid copepod shows. This unidentified specimen was found on a Montipora coral. Microphotograph by the author.

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Figure 142. Although a deep-water species, this Smacigastes micheli demonstrates the beauty (or creepiness, depending upon your point of view) of parasitic copepods. From Ivanenko & Defaye 2004.

Tegastes acroporanus

  • Host: Acropora florida
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: Red, according to aquarists' reports
  • Locality: Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1981
  • Tegastes gemmeus
  • Host: Cyphastrea Celina and Pocillopora capitata (listed as P. verrucosa)
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.43mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.41mm
  • Color: Gray with red eye
  • Locality: Oahu, Hawaii
  • Reference: Humes, 1984
image027.jpg

Figure 143. Tegastes gemmeus, a copepod known to infest Hawai'ian corals. This is a typical dorsal view of Tegastes and Parategastes.

Tegastes georgei

  • Host: Stylophora sp. and Pocillopora sp.
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): ?
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): ?
  • Color: ?
  • Locality: Gulf of Eliat, Red Sea
  • Reference: Humes, 1984

Tegastes paulipes

  • Host: Pocillopora verrucosa
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.42mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.42mm
  • Color: Light pale tan to gray with darker amber areas, red eye, egg sacs gray.
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1984
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Figure 144. Tegastes paulipes, female, lateral view.

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Figure 145. A 'red bug' taken from a captive Acropora specimen. Is it Tegastes paulipes? This is quite interesting as T. paulipes is not officially recognized as a parasite of Acropora species. Photo courtesy of Greg Hiller. More details can be found here: http://www.advancedaquarist.com/issues/june2003/feature.htm

Parategastes conexus

  • Host: Stereonephthya ulicoides
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 0.41mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 0.43mm
  • Color: Opaque pale grayish tan, eye red, genital area bright red, egg sacs gray.
  • Locality: Moluccas Islands
  • Reference: Humes, 1984
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Figure 146. Parategastes conexus, a parasite known only from the soft coral Stereonephthya.

Order: Siphonostomatoida; Family: Asterocheridae; Genus: Acontiophorus, Stockmyzon

There isn't much information about these copepods relative to some other genera. These 'bugs' seem to be confined to the Atlantic and Mediterranean, and have not been reported from the Pacific.

Acontiophorus scutatus

  • Host: Asterocheres astroidicola
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a

Stockmyzon mucronipes

  • Host: Astroides calycularis
  • Maximum Reported Size (female): 1.42mm
  • Maximum Reported Size (male): 1.08mm
  • Color: Translucent, red eye, egg sacs gray
  • Locality: Madagascar
  • Reference: Humes and Ho, 1968a

Parasitic Copepods in the Reef Aquarium

An aquarium differs radically from a natural environment, and a quite different from a coral reef. Temperature, nutrients, and a number of other factors may contribute to unnatural populations or outbreaks of copepod populations. While these may contribute to abnormal infestations, hobbyists do have a number of methods available to them, including quarantine, chemical control or eradication, biological controls including deliberate manipulation of physical and chemical parameters, as well as selective control by natural predators.

Prevention

The old adage 'An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure' applies to both quarantine and husbandry procedures. However, the effectiveness of currently accepted pre-treatment and quarantine procedures are yet to be validated for many parasitic copepod genera.

Parameters Possibly Affecting Parasite Populations

Part of a successful control strategy for parasites might include manipulation of physical parameters. We'll briefly discuss two - temperature and water motion. These are easily (but not necessarily inexpensively) controlled.

Temperature

Temperature is an easily measured parameter of any body of water and its importance in the regulation of biological and biochemical reactions is well recognized. Yet, I saw very little mention of temperature while reviewing a number of hobby-related works on parasites. However, Sparks (1985) mentions temperatures in the lower range of tolerance as important in keeping parasites, disease, etc. in check. Further, Jacoby and Greenwood (1989) reported statistically significant seasonal changes in demersal zooplankton populations in Australia (including Parategastes copepods known to preferentially inhabit certain algal beds - other Parategastes species are parasites of certain coral taxa).

Humes and Lee, 1985 found parasitic copepod Anthessius populations rose in populations of the clam Pecna in water off Hong Kong during the later part of the year. When compared to average environmental data (water and air temps, rainfall) for the area, it appears there is a general trend of more 'bugs' during times of warmer water. However, this time is also one of lessened rainfall that could reduce lessened nutrient loadings. This observation is by all means not conclusive, but it is an interesting one. See Figures 147 and 148.

Any seasoned hobbyist has seen blooms of various (usually undesirable) organisms within aquaria and all are due to a domino-effect of change, some undoubtedly triggered by warm water. Although we have lots of subjective evidence, work remains to be done on the effects of temperature and coral parasite populations. Maintaining the temperature as low as 22°C (~72°F) in an aquarium for tropical fishes and invertebrates should present no problems.

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Figure 147. Clams (Pecna viridis) infested with Anthessius copepods. Compare this to the locale's weather data, below. From Humes and Lee, 1985.

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Figure 148. Hong Kong's climate data by month. Temperatures (air and water are mean values). Rainfall is by number of days in a given month when rainfall exceeds 0.1mm, 25mm and 50mm. Source: Hong Kong Observatory (www.weather.gov.hk/cis/normal/1961­_1990/enormal07.htm)

Water Motion

Experienced snorkelers or divers know that natural coral reefs are subjected to much higher water motion than seen in most aquaria. The high water velocity could serve to remove parasites from corals' tissues where they are hence eaten by fishes. It is really a matter of speculation that low water movement might encourage parasitic infestations, however it is generally accepted that zooxanthellae photosynthesis is proportional (up to a point) to water velocity when sufficient light energy is available. If water motion is low, then the amount of nutrient obtained by the coral from the symbiotic Symbiodinium might also be low. In this case, the coral's energy reserves could also be limited, thus an infestation by parasitic copepods might have more of an effect.

Isolation from the Host

During preparation of this article hundreds of Tegastes (or Parategastes) parasites were isolated from the host coral, and were examined microscopically for a number of days. Oddly, not one female with egg sacs was observed. These bugs remained isolated from the host for about 4 days before dying. However, plenty of protozoa were observed in the sample, suggesting that environmental conditions (dissolved oxygen, pH, etc.) were not the cause of copepod deaths.

Why were there no females reproducing? Are these particular parasitic copepods unusually long lived making rapid reproduction unnecessary?

Treatments for Parasitic Copepods

The very first question that should be asked is 'Should I treat?' The very best scenario is no parasites at all, but a few might do no significant harm. In addition, some parasitic copepods seem to have a high fidelity to specific coral species and the risk of infection of other coral species might be non-existent or minimal. However, infestations resulting in loss of corals' color, polyp expansion, or general malaise should be taken seriously and followed with a regimented treatment protocol.

Copepods succumb to a variety of chemicals, and a review of older material (Kabata, 1970; Dulin, 1976) suggests use of insecticides such as DDT (!), lindane (!) and Dylox. Fortunately we don't have to resort to such drastic (and dangerous) methods for control of coral parasites.

Successful treatments for copepods infestations are dependent upon many factors. The resistance of the animal against the treatment procedure is something we know very little, although there is little to suggest that one genus of copepod is more resistant than others to a certain 'medication.' If we consider each 'bug' is equally susceptible, then two other factors are involved: Dosage and Length of Treatment. These are being refined, as the information below states.

Quarantine Treatments for Red and Black Bugs

There are several products for 'bug control' available to hobbyists. With the exception of the ReVive product (obtained as a manufacturer's sample), these solutions were obtained through normal retail channels. All were tested using the following protocols.

Testing Protocol

Since I do not have access to all the coral parasites, I decided to conduct some bioassays using similar creatures. Note that we should not be concerned with only the target organism, but should examine the effects of the medication on a variety of organisms. Also included are observations made by a select group of hobbyists. These comments should not be considered to be comprehensive, but as results obtained with a specific 'bug' species under the conditions of testing.

Protocol: Snails, planarians, and copepods were collected from a freshwater pond and divided into a study group and a control group. These groups were placed into stainless steel pans containing one liter of pond water. Medication was added per the manufacturer's recommendations. Observations were made continuously during the recommended treatment time, after which at least one water change was made. A final observation was made after 24 hours. These trials were conducted twice, about 1 week apart.

ReVive Coral Cleaner

  • Manufacturer: Two Little Fishies
  • Contains: Oleum abietis, 5,000 mg/l; Citrus limon, 5,000 mg/l (or 0.5% each)
  • pH: 5.27 @ 24.2°C. - Does not adversely affect water pH when following manufacturer's dosing recommendations.
  • 1 capful = 8 milliliters
  • Marked Expiration Date: No
image040.jpg

Figure 149. ReVive, a 'coral cleaner' from Two Little Fishies.

This product is effective against crustaceans, including copepods. It is not intended for treatment of whole aquaria.

The label lists two main active ingredients: Oleum abietis (pine or fir oil) and Citrus Limon (lemon peel extract). Pine oil is often used by humans as a decongestant, and it has antiseptic properties. Cold-pressed extracts of lemon peels has various commercial and industrial uses.

The bottle I obtained is not marked with an expiration date. When stored properly (in the dark and refrigerated) it probably has a shelf life of a year or two. When citrus limon degrades, it develops a turpentine odor and this might used as an indicator of product condition.

I found this product to be an effective coral cleaner. A Montipora specimen was soaked in a Revive solution for 16 minutes, although copepods and other crustaceans had abandoned the coral a few minutes after the treatment began. The coral exhibited some mucus discharge (about that seem when most corals are handled) and was soaked in ReVive-free aquarium water before being returned to the aquarium. The Revive solution and debris was poured through a 190 micron mesh, and the collected material was examined with the aid of a microscope. Various amphipods and copepods, plus a number of unidentified animals were observed. See Figure 150. The kill rate of copepods was 100%.

The aforementioned Montipora specimen was chosen for treatment because it had inexplicably lost most of its vibrant orange coloration, and batteries of testing had failed to reveal any environmental (mostly chemical) clues. After about 3 weeks, I noticed that portions of the specimen were regaining its orange fluorescence. Although I cannot guarantee that the cleansing dip was responsible for the return of coloration, I am at a loss to provide an alternate explanation.

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Figure 150. A copepod 'chased' from a Montipora specimen by the ReVive product. Note the brown dots within the crustacean - are these zooxanthellae, or simply natural coloration? Photomicrograph by the author.

Results of ReVive Treatment (Using freshwater animals, protocol described above):

  • Unidentified Crustaceans: 94% kill rate after 15 minute dip
  • Snails: Initially stunned by the treatment, but apparently fully recovered when observed at 24 hours.

MelaFix Marine

  • Manufacturer: Aquarium Pharmaceuticals
  • Contains: Oil of the Meleluca Tree, 12,500 mg/l (or 1.25%)
  • pH: 4.16 @ 22.1°C. Does not adversely affect water pH when following manufacturer's dosing recommendations.
  • 1 capful = 11.3 milliliters
  • Marked Expiration Date: Yes. Purchased in October 2009. Expiration date is July 2012.
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Figure 151. Melafix, a 'coral remedy' from API.

Aquarist Steve Ruddy kindly relayed his experiences with 'black bugs' (see Figures 5, 6, and 7) and MelaFix. He found that black bugs abandoned the host coral (a Montipora species - See Figure 4) about 20 minutes after the treatment began. Note: Ruddy's treatment time of 20 minutes exceeds the manufacturer's maximum recommended time of 5 minutes. These copepods settled to the bottom of the container and swam in circles, and all motion stopped 30 minutes after treatment started. However, the parasites were not killed during the treatment process, and were still alive some 24 hours after the treatment began.

We should note that Meleluca oil is considered a carcinogen by the State of California, and the bottles of Melafix Marine are so marked.

Results of Melafix Treatment (Freshwater animals used, protocol described above):

  • Unidentified Crustaceans: 97.5% kill rate after 15 minute dip*
  • Snails: Initially stunned by the treatment, but apparently fully recovered when observed at 24 hours.

*An interesting observation. When comparing the kill rates of different copepods, it is apparent that this product is very effective against some bugs, and not so against others. This point may be moot, as Ruddy found it worked very well when used to drive (but not kill) bugs from a Montipora coral during a quarantine 'dip'.

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Figure 152. When treated with Melafix, these unidentified copepods (black bugs) abandoned a distressed Montipora specimen. Photo courtesy of Steve Ruddy.

Pro-Coral Cure

  • Manufacturer: Tropic Marin
  • Contains: Iodine, about 5,600 mg/l (or 0.56%)
  • pH: 6.49 @ 22.0°C - Does not adversely affect water pH when following manufacturer's dosing recommendations.
  • Marked Expiration Date: No

This product's container uses a small push-pump to dispense the iodine solution. I found it to deliver 0.7 milliliters (it is advertised to dispense 1 ml). I bring this up as I found the pump awkward and messy to use and chose to measure the solution using a suction bulb and pipette. For those dispensing the product manually, a dose smaller than recommended seems to work well (see results below).

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Figure 153. Pro-Coral Cure, an iodine-based product from Tropic Marin.

Results of Pro-Coral Cure Treatment (Freshwater animals used, protocol described above):

  • Unidentified Crustaceans: 94% kill rate after 15 minute dip
  • Snails: Initially stunned by the treatment, but apparently fully recovered when observed at 24 hours.
  • This product was also tested as an agent of flatworm control. We'll discuss this in a future article.

Product Shelf Life of 'Coral Dips'

Dosage is based upon the reactive agent content. Most products have a limited shelf life and an expiration date is (or should be) marked on the container. For example, meleluca degrades upon exposure to light, heat, humidity and exposure to air, and the product containing it (MelaFix, Aquarium Pharmaceuticals) has an expiration date on the bottle. This date is there for a reason - don't ignore it. Store these and other products in dark, cool dry conditions and in a container containing little air (Carson et al., 2006) to avoid considerable changes in the chemical makeup. The only indictor of spoilage of which I am aware is the potential development of a turpentine odor.

Two Little Fishies product (ReVive) has no expiration date.

The Tropic Marin Pro-Coral Cure is not marked with an expiration date. Iodine degradation is often linked to light intensity. Store this product in the dark.

Ethyl and Methyl Alcohols

Ethyl and methyl alcohols are toxic to invertebrates, depending upon the dose of course. In various papers, the copepod expert Arthur Humes mentions using 95% ethyl alcohol to make a 5% solution of alcohol and seawater. He soaked various corals in this solution over timeframes of several hours to overnight, and found endoparasitic copepods would abandon their host. I tried this, and found it true, but it also killed the coral host.

In-Tank Treatments for Red and Black Bugs

In-tank treatments fall into two general categories - biological and chemical. Personally I would prefer a natural means of controlling coral parasites, however, there are many issues surrounding this protocol. I suppose it is an overall lack of success I've had over the years when choosing fishes, crabs, nudibranchs and other animals for elimination of some sort of pest.

Biological controls are subject to the independent whims of parasite predators. Long-time hobbyists recognize that individuals of a given fish species have their own personalities and behaviors. For instance, some Copperband Butterflyfishes will destroy Aiptasia colonies, while another Copperband might show little or no interest in a diet of Aiptasia anemones. Other fishes may have specific dietary requirements, and elimination of parasites through predation could result in loss through starvation of the predatory fish. As we have seen, many coral parasites reside within coral tissues and successful bio-removal would involve substantial loss of coral tissues - a case where the cure for parasites is successful due to the loss of the host. However, my experiences will not necessarily be yours. I wish you the best of luck in our endeavors.

Chemical Treatments

Milbemycin Oxime (Interceptor™)

  • Manufacturer: Novartis AG
  • Treatment protocol developed by Dustin Dorton.
  • Comments: Store milbemycin oxime at room temperature.

Interceptor is a medication marketed for treatment of canine scabies, eye worms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, and heartworms in dogs, and it has been found to be effective against at least some parasitic copepod taxa.

According to Dorton, 1 Interceptor™ tablet (intended for large dogs weighing 51-100 pounds) weighs one gram and contains 23 milligrams of milbemycin oxime. One tablet is ground to powder and 25 milligrams is added to a small container of aquarium water and mixed (this might take quite a bit of stirring). This water containing 25 mg of the tablet is sufficient to treat 10 gallons of actual water volume in the aquarium. In other words, 1 tablet containing 23 mg of milbemycin oxime will treat 380 gallons, according to Dorton (400 gallons according to my calculation). A local school or university, laboratory, or larger water or wastewater treatment plant will have an analytical scale (or balance). They might perform weight analyses for you.*

  • Remove all shrimp and crabs from the aquarium. Remove mechanical filtration and activated carbon. Turn off UV sterilizers and protein skimmers (but water should still circulate through these vessels in order for these volumes of water to be medically treated as well).
  • Add a sufficient amount of medication to the aquarium. Allow treatment to proceed for 6 hours, and perform a 25% water change. Resume use of carbon, skimming, etc.
  • Repeat this procedure 7 days later, and again after 14 days.
  • * Dosage is apparently not as critical as suggested by Dorton, as time has confirmed that higher concentrations (5x or more than that recommended by Dorton) of milbemycin oxime does little, if any, harm to corals.

Milbemycin Oxime and Lufenuron (Sentinel™)

  • Manufacturer: Novartis AG
  • In addition to milbemycin, this product also contains lufenuron for flea control.

Lufenuron (Program™)

  • Manufacturer: Novartis AG
  • Not recommended for use as a coral treatment.

Ivermectin (Stromectol™, Ivomec™, HeartGard™, Iverhart Plus™, Tri-Heart Plus™ and Acarexx™)

Ivermectin is a treatment for lice, mites, ear mites and is also an antihelmitic (effective against roundworms, heartworms, and lungworms) in cattle and swine. It is also prescribed for humans as a treatment for Bancroft's filariasis and scabies.

Wright (2009) suggests this treatment protocol: Dissolve Ivomec (1% solution) in propylene gycol (an alcohol). Dose at 0.75 mg/l per gallon (actual volume). Wright's article used 34 mg in 45 gallons).

Turn off the protein skimmer, UV sterilizer, and canister filters and disperse the Ivomec solution in a strong stream of water within the aquarium. After 12 hours, filter water using fresh activated carbon and resume use of the protein skimmer and UV sterilization. Repeat this treatment every two weeks for a total of 3 times.

The author (Wright) cautions that this treatment might harm arthropods, mollusks, crustaceans, other invertebrates (I'm assuming he doesn't mean corals other than the Acropora specimen mentioned in the article) and angelfishes.

MelaFix Marine

  • Manufacturer: Aquarium Pharmaceuticals
  • See details listed above. API recommends this product for whole-tank treatment, but these claims have not been evaluated by this writer.

Conclusions

Not all copepods that associate with scleractinians are harmful. However, our lack of knowledge forces us to make an assumption that corals crawling with copepods are in danger.

  • There are hundreds, perhaps thousands of coral parasites. It seems there are specialist parasites found in or on specific coral species, while others are generalists and might infest and feed on a number of coral species. Although there is some indication within the hobby that 'bugs' might adopt a new home coral species if their host dies, it will take years of work to establish how parasites behave in artificial environments.
  • It is not uncommon for hobbyists to mix Atlantic corals (sea whips, sea fans, Manicina, etc.) together with Pacific coral species. We understand nothing of how parasites from different locales interact with foreign potential hosts.
  • Parasitic copepods may introduce bacterial pathogens.
  • Many parasites are internal and are not readily apparent, where endoparasites living in the gastrovascualr cavities remain hidden from view. Stock (1988) discusses the ease which Pacific endoparasites are coaxed from host coral tissues. Internal parasites of Atlantic/Caribbean corals are more difficult to remove than those of their Pacific counterparts - indeed, this researcher states that parasites of the Family Corallovexia (and perhaps Corallonoxia) were apparent only after host tissues were chemically dissolved. Does this mean that current treatment protocols are incapable of purging host tissues of their copepod parasites? Without further documentation, this question must remain unanswered.
  • Some copepod parasites consume coral tissues, including symbiotic zooxanthellae, which are then incorporated into the parasites' bodies. Presumably, the parasite forms a symbiotic relationship with Symbiodinium sp. Thus some parasites not only consume coral tissues but rob corals of the benefits of their algal symbionts. Large numbers of external parasites could also shade zooxanthellae and cause of loss of beneficial nutrient recycling.
  • The number of bugs on a coral is only part of the equation. It is the degree of trauma caused by the parasite, where the amount of damage is compared to the amount of tissue. Simply dividing corals into the categories of 'large polyp' and 'small polyp' could be insufficient in estimating potential impacts of parasites. In the case of SPS corals, the hobbyist should consider the porosity of the coral skeleton. Perforate skeletons are porous while imperforate skeletons lack these channels that often contain soft living coral tissues. For instance, Montipora and Porites corals are generally highly porous and superficial tissue damage is less likely to become a health issue. On other hand, some corals (such as Pocillopora meandrina) have non-porous, rock-hard skeletons and damage to the paper-thin layer of soft tissues simply covering the skeleton might have a far greater impact than the same amount of damage to a perforate coral. Acropora species are usually listed as possessing imperforate skeletons. However, those hobbyists with a lot of experience in fragging Acroporas have noted living tissue channels running within the skeleton. Hence, Acroporas defy a simple sorting and must be judged on a case-by-case basis. This could explain why 'bugs' are not much of an issue with soft corals.
  • Specific chemical treatments may not be a universal cure for coral parasites. There is evidence that a prescribed treatment will eliminate some 'bugs' but only irritate others.
  • Quite a few photographs exist of ectoparasites Tegastes, Parategastes, and others. Despite the large number of parasitic Xarifid copepods, no photographs of these bugs have been provided by hobbyists. This suggests endoparasites (despite being larger in size and in number of species) are not abundant in number in important aquarium coral species, or have simply been overlooked due to their hidden and/or tenacious nature. Current pre-treatment methods are encouraged, yet we do not know if they are effective against endoparasitic copepods.
  • Biological controls for some copepods are available, but these are sometimes a hit-or-miss proposition.
  • Without the presence of a host, some copepods (specifically the Tegastes(?) bug seen in Figure 7) will survive for only a few days (~48 hours, based on limited observations).
  • Hobbyists using medications for in-tank treatments should expect losses of livestock. This could be a result of sensitivity of the organism(s) to the toxic nature of the chemical, or perhaps as through secondary effects. To my knowledge, no one has investigated the responses of nitrifying bacteria to medications mentioned in this article. Nitrifying bacteria populations are generally more easily upset than their carbonaceous counterparts.

This article is but a small tool for use by serious hobbyists in answering many questions. Hobbyists are encouraged to photo-document individuals observed during parasitic outbreaks, as well as compare notes on those environmental factors possibly encouraging explosion of parasite populations.

For now, prevention of aquarium infestation has to rely to two simple procedures: Treatment to removal existing parasites followed by a quarantine period to prevent introduction of any surviving egg masses or adults. Once the corals are in the display aquarium, treatment and control of parasite infestations becomes much more complex in nature. Medications are simply a band aid for treatment of environmental factors aiding in an explosion of parasite populations and it unclear if present treatment protocols are effective against all parasitic genera. Investigations of biological controls are encouraged, but hobbyists should accept results are not guaranteed for either eradication of parasites or long-term survival of the predator.

Next time, we'll examine copepod parasites found on soft corals, gorgonians and Tridacna clams.

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Steve Ruddy of Coral Reef Ecosystems (www.coralreefecosystems) for supplying photographs, preserved specimens, and comments during the preparation of this article. Ken Lunde (KonaDog) obtained permission from Greg Ho for use of his photographs (www.ximinasphotography.com). Jake Adams and www.CoralIdea.com again provided images of Atlantic corals. Justin Medwieg (www.madfragsonline) shared some of his wonderful coral photographs.

Please direct questions to the comments section below.

Table Two. Parasitic Copepods, Listed by Host Coral. Copepod size is an average. See Table Three for a listing by Parasite.
Coral Parasite Size, Color Reference
Acrhelia horrescens Xarifia plectrata 1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Acrhelia horrescens Anchimolgus abbreviatus Humes, 1991
Acrhelia horrescens Anchimolgus tenuipes Humes, 1991
Acropora abrotanoides Xarifia anomala 1.25mm Humes, 1985
Acropora abrotanoides Xarifia breviramea 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Acropora abrotanoides Xarifia sabiuraensis 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora abrotanoides Xarifia trituberata 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora convexa Xarifia anomala 1.25mm Humes, 1985
Acropora convexa Xarifia sabiuraensis 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora convexa Scyphuliger longicaudus Kim, 2003
Acropora 'corymbosa' group Xarifia anomala 1.25mm Humes, 1985
Acropora 'corymbosa' group Xarifia breviramea 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Acropora 'corymbosa' group Xarifia gerlachi ~2mm Humes, 1985
Acropora 'corymbosa' group Xarifia infrequens 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Acropora 'corymbosa' Xarifia linearis 1.4mm Nair, 1983
Acropora 'corymbosa' group Xarifia trituberata 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora 'corymbosa' group Xarifia tumorisa 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora 'corymbosa' group Xarifia ablusa 1mm Humes, 1985
Acropora corymbosa Scyphuliger pilosus Kim, 2003
Acropora corymbosa Scyphuliger pennatus Kim, 2003
Acropora cymbicyanthus Scyphuliger tenuatis Humes, 1990
Acropora cytheria Xarifia gerlachi ~2mm Humes, 1985
Acropora cytheria Xarifia infrequens 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Acropora cytheria Xarifia tenuis 1.4mm Humes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?) Xarifia ablusa 1mm Humes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?) Xarifia anomala 1.25mm Humes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?) Xarifia breviramea 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?) Xarifia gerlachi ~2mm Humes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?) Xarifia infrequens 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?) Xarifia linearis 1.4mm Nair, 1983
Acropora digitifera (?) Xarifia trituberata 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora digitifera (?) Xarifia tumorisa 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora elseyi Xarifia ablusa 1mm Humes, 1985
Acropora elseyi Xarifia fastigata 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Acropora elseyi Xarifia tumorisa 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora exigua Alteuthellopsis corallina Humes, 1981b
Acropora exigua Xarifia breviramea 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Acropora exigua Ecphysarion lobophorum Humes and Ho, 1968
Acropora exilis Scyphuliger latus Kim, 2003
Acropora exilis Scyphuliger aristoides Humes, 1993
Acropora exilis Scyphuliger paucisurculus Kim, 2003
Acropora florida Ecphysarion lobophorum Humes & Stock, 1973
Acropora florida Tegastes acroporanus Humes, 1981
Acropora florida Xarifia anomala 1.25mm Humes, 1985
Acropora florida Xarifia breviramea 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Acropora florida Xarifia gerlachi ~2mm Humes, 1985
Acropora florida Xarifia pectinea 1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Acropora florida Xarifia sabiuraensis 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora florida Xarifia trituberata 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora florida Xarifia tumorisa 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora formosa Xarifia basilica >3mm; opaque brown-gray, red eye Humes, 1985
Acropora formosa Xarifia bullifera 1.35mm; opaque gray, red eye Humes, 1985
Acropora formosa Xarifia infrequens 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Acropora formosa Xarifia tumorisa 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora gemmifera Xarifia species Humes, 1985
Acropora gravida Xarifia anomala Humes, 1994
Acropora gravida Xarifia breviramea Humes, 1994
Acropora gravida Xarifia gerlachi Humes, 1994
Acropora gravida Xarifia pectinea Humes, 1994
Acropora gravida Xarifia sabiuraensis Humes, 1994
Acropora gravida Xarifia trituberata Humes, 1994
Acropora gravida Xarifia tumorisa Humes, 1994
Acropora hebes Xarifia indica 1.5mm Nair, 1983
Acropora hebes Xarifia laccadivensis 1.6mm Nair, 1983
Acropora hebes Xarifia robusta 1.7mm Nair, 1983
Acropora humilis Xarifia ablusa 1mm Humes, 1985
Acropora humilis Xarifia anomala 1.25mm Humes, 1985
Acropora humilis Xarifia breviramea 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Acropora humilis Xarifia gerlachi ~2mm Humes, 1985
Acropora humilis Xarifia infrequens 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Acropora humilis Xarifia linearis 1.4mm Nair, 1983
Acropora humilis Xarifia longicauda 1.4mm Nair, 1983
Acropora humilis Xarifia pectinea 1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Acropora humilis Xarifia trituberata 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora humilis Xarifia tumorisa 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthus Xarifia anomala 1.25mm Humes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthus Xarifia basilica >3mm; opaque brown-gray, red eye Humes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthus Xarifia breviramea 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthus Xarifia gerlachi ~2mm Humes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthus Xarifia infrequens 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthus Xarifia pectinea 1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthus Xarifia sabiuraensis 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthus Xarifia trituberata 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthus Xarifia tumorisa 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora hyacinthus Scyphuliger concavipes Humes, 1991
Acropora hyacinthus Scyphuliger manifestus Humes, 1991
Acropora hyacinthus Scyphuliger eumorphus Humes, 1993
Acropora intermeda Xarifia anomala 1.25mm Humes, 1985
Acropora intermeda Xarifia breviramea 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Acropora intermedia Xarifia pectinea 1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Acropora intermedia Xarifia sabiuraensis 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora intermedia Xarifia trituberata 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora intermedia Xarifia tumorisa 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora intermedia Scyphuliger karangmiensis Kim, 2007
Acropora millepora Xarifia breviramea 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Acropora palifera Xarifia anomala 1.25mm Humes, 1985
Acropora palifera Xarifia exuta 2.5mm Humes, 1985
Acropora palifera Xarifia guttulifera 2.4mm Humes, 1985
Acropora palifera Xarifia mucronata 2.4mm Humes, 1985
Acropora palifera Schedomolgus exciliculus Humes, 1993
Acropora palifera Ecphysarion spinulatum Humes, 1993
Acropora palifera Unicispina latigentalis Humes, 1993
Acropora palmata Corallovexia similis Stock, 1975
Acropora palmata Corallovexia sp. Herriot & Immerman, 1979
Acropora patula Lipochrus acroporinus
Acropora patula Xarifia pectinea Humes, 1985
Acropora patula Xarifia sabiuraensis 1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Acropora patula Xarifia trituberata 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora patula Xarifia tumorisa 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora patula Schedomolgus idanus 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora pectinata Xarifia sp. Misaki, 1978
Acropora pectinata Xarifia sp. Misaki, 1978
Acropora rambleri Lipochrus species Humes, 1993
Acropora rambleri Xarifia ablusa Humes, 1985
Acropora rambleri Xarifia breviramea 1mm Humes, 1985
Acropora rambleri Xarifia pectinea 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Acropora rambleri Xarifia sabiuraensis 1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Acropora rambleri Xarifia trituberata 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora rosaria Lipochrus acroporinus 1.6mm Humes, 1985
Acropora rosaria Xarifia ablusa Humes, 1985
Acropora rosaria Xarifia fastigata 1mm Humes, 1985
Acropora rosaria Xarifia rosariae 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Acropora rosaria Ecphysarion ampullulum 1.7mm Humes, 1985
Acropora rosaria Lipochrus acroporinus Humes, 1993
Acropora sarmentosa Xarifia pectinea Humes & Dojiri, 1982
Acropora sarmentosa Xarifia tumorisa 1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Acropora sp. Xarifia anomala 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora sp. Xarifia gerlachi 1.25mm Humes, 1985
Acropora sp. cf. A. teres Xarifia gerlachi ~2mm Humes, 1985
Acropora squarrosa (millepora) Xarifia tumorisa ~2mm Humes, 1985
Acropora squarrosa (millepora) Scyphuliger placidus 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Acropora squarrosa (millepora) Scyphuliger humesi Kim, 2004
Acropora squarrosa (millepora) Scyphuliger vicinus Kim, 2004
Acropora syringodes Xarifia species Humes, 1991
Acropora valida Xarifia breviramea Humes, 1985
Alveopora catalai Anchimolgus multidentatus 1.74mm Humes, 1985
Alveopora mortensi Xarifia mediolobata Kim, 2003
Alveopora mortensi Xarifia radians 2.6mm Humes, 1985
Alveopora mortensi Odontomolgus mundulus 2.3mm Humes, 1985
Alveopora sp. Xarifia brevicauda Humes, 1974
Astreopora sp. Alteuthellopsis corallina 1.35mm; opaque, red-orange intestine, red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Astreocheres astroidicola Acontiophorus scutatis Humes, 1981b
Astroides calycularis Stockmyzon murinipes
Astroides calycularis Stockmyzon mucronipes Bandera and Huys
Colpophyllia natans Corallavexia kristenseni Bandera & Huys, 2008
Colpophyllia natans Corallavexia mixtibrachium Stock, 1975
Colpophyllia natans Corallovexia mediobrachium Stock, 1975
Cyphastrea chalcidium Xarifia villosa Herriot & Immerman, 1979
Cyphastrea ocellina Tegastes gemmus 1.2mm Humes, 1985
Dendrogyra sp. Corallovexia sp. Stock, 1975
Dichocoenia sp. Corallovexia sp. Stock, 1975
Diploria clivosa Corallovexia mediobrachium Humes, 1984
Cyphastrea sp. Diallagomolgus sp. Herriot & Immerman, 1979
Diploria labyrinthformis Corallavexia brevibrachium Humes, 1994
Diploria strigosa Corallavexia mediobrachium Stock, 1975
Echinopora gemmacea Xarifia dispar Stock, 1975
Echinopora horrida Xarifia echinoporae 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Echinopora horrida Anchimolgus exsertus 2.3mm Humes, 1985
Echinopora lamellosa Xarifia dispar Humes, 1991
Echinopora lamellosa Xarifia echinoporae 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Echinopora lamellosa Anchimolgus tridentatus 2.3mm Humes, 1985
Echinopora sp. Xarifia dispar Kim, 2003
Eunicella singularis Stockmyzon mucronipes 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Euphyllia glabrescens Xarifia gracilipes Bandera & Huys, 2008
Eusmilia fastigata Corallonoxia baki ~2mm Humes, 1985
Favia Amarda sp.
Favia favus Cerioxynus alatus Stock, 1975
Favia sp. Orstomella faviae Humes, 1994
Favia sp. Rakotoa proteus Humes, 1994
Favia sp. Anchimolgus sp. 2.3mm; bright red, dark red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Favia sp. Andrianellus exsertidens Humes, 1994
Favia sp. Stockia sp. Humes, 1994
Favites flexuosa Xarifia torigera Humes, 1994
Favites halicora Cerioxynus faviticolus Humes, 1994
Favites pentagona Cerioxynus moluccensis 2.3mm; pale brown w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Favites pentagona Rakotoa ceramensis Humes, 1994
Favites virens Cerioxynus bandensis Humes, 1994
Fungia concinna Anchimolgus maximus Humes, 1979
Fungia echinata Xarifia species Humes, 1994
Fungia echinata Anchimolgus latens Kim, 2003
Fungia echinata Anchimolgus pandus Humes, 1985
Fungia echinata Schedomolgus tener Humes, 1978
Fungia fungites Schedomolgus dumbensis Humes, 1978
Fungia fungites Odontomolgus scitulus Humes, 1973
Fungia paumotensis Anchimolgus orectus Kim, 2003
Fungia paumotensis Anchimolgus punctilis Humes, 1973
Fungia species Zazaranus fungicolus Humes, 1978
Fungia species Odontomolgus flammeus Humes, 1978
Fungia species Anchimolgus hastatus Humes, 1985
Galaxea astreata Xarifia species Kim, 2007
Galaxea fascicularis Xarifia exserens Kim, 2007
Galaxea fascicularis Anchimolgus compressus Humes, 1985
Galaxea fascicularis Anchimolgus contractus 2.3mm; opaque gray, red eye Humes, 1985
Galaxea fascicularis Anchimolgus moluccanus Humes, 1996
Galaxea fascicularis Anchimolgus nastuas Humes, 1979
Gardineroseris planulata Anchimolgus angustus Humes, 1996
Gardineroseris planulata Xarifia clavellata Humes, 1996
Gardineroseris planulata Xarifia filata Humes, 1992
Gardineroseris planulata Xarifia rasilis 0.8mm Humes, 1985
Gardineroseris planulata Odontomolgus mucosus ~1mm; Gray, red eye Humes, 1985
Gardineroseris planulata Odontomolgus pumulis 0.9mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Gardineroseris planulata Odontomolgus unioviger Kim, 2006
Gardineroseris planulata Anchimolgus eparmatoides Humes, 1992
Gardineroseris planulata Anchimolgus gibberulus Kim, 2006
Gardineroseris planulata Anchimolgus stellus Humes & Stock, 1972
Goniastrea retiformis Alteuthellopsis corallina Humes, 1992
Goniastrea retiformis Amarda curvus Humes, 1972
Goniastrea retiformis Amarda goniastraea Humes, 1981b
Goniastrea retiformis Odontomolgus parvus Kim, 2007
Goniopora minor Wedanus formosanus Humes, 1995
Goniopora pedunculata Xarifia hadra Kim, 2007
Goniopora pedunculata Xarifia scutipes Cheng et al., 2008
Goniopora species Xarifia resex 1.7mm Humes, 1985
Goniopora species Anchimolgus conformatus 2mm Humes, 1985
Goniopora species Anchimolgus mimeticus 1.4mm Humes, 1985
Goniopora species Odontomolgus campulus Humes & Stock, 1973
Goniopora stokesi Anchimolgus brevarius Humes, 1995
Goniopora stokesi Anchimolgus gigas Humes, 1995
Goniopora tenuidens Xarifia hadra Humes, 1995
Goniopora tenuidens Xarifia resex Humes & Stock, 1995
Goniopora tenuidens Xarifia scutipes 1.7mm Humes, 1985
Goniopora tenuidens Wedanus inconstans 1.4mm Humes, 1985
Gyrosmilia interrupta Xarifia apertipes 2mm Humes, 1985
Halomitra pileus Odontomolgus fultus Humes, 1978
Heliofungia actiniformis Odontomolgus decens Humes, 1985
Hydnophora exesa Xarifia comptula Humes & Stock, 1972
Hydnophora exesa Xarifia curtata Humes and Stock, 1972
Hydnophora exesa Panjakus hydnophorae 2.5mm Humes, 1985
Hydnophora microconus Panjakus iratus Up to 3.5mm Humes & Ho, 1968
Hydnophora microconus Panjakus saccipes Humes and Stock, 1973
Hydnophora microconus Anchimolgus paragensis Kim, 2005
Hydnophora rigida Panjakus eumeces Humes, 1991
Hydnophora sp. Humesiella corallicola Kim, 2007
Hydnophora sp. Panjakus sp. Kim, 2005
Hydnophora sp. Panjakus hydnophorae 1.5mm Sebastian & Pillai, 1973
Hydnophora tenella Panjakus hydnophorae Humes, 1994
Leptoria phrygia Xarifia species Humes and Stock, 1973
Leptoria tenuis Panjakus directus Humes and Stock, 1973
Leptoria tenuis Panjakus necopinus Humes, 1985
Lobophyllia corymbosa Orstomella lobophylliae Humes, 1995
Lobophyllia costata Orstomella lobophylliae Humes, 1995
Manicina areolata Corallavexia longibrachium 1.4mm; bright red, dark red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Meandrina meandrites Corallovexia sp. 1.4mm; bright red, dark red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Meandrina meandrites Corallonoxia baki Stock, 1975
Merulina ampliata Alteuthellopsis corallina Herriot & Immerman, 1979
Merulina ampliata Amardopsis merulinae Stock, 1975
Merulina ampliata Xarifia species Humes, 1981b
Merulina ampliata Odontomolgus bulbalis Humes 1994
Montastrea brasiliana Corallavexia ventrospina Humes, 1985
Montastrea cavernosa Corallavexia dorsospinosa minor Humes. 1991
Montastrea cavernosa Corallavexia dorsospinosa Stock, 1975
Montastrea cavernosa Corallovexia sp. Stock, 1975
Montastrea curta Cerioxynus montastreae Stock, 1975
Montipora caliculata Haplomolgus incolumis Herriot & Immerman, 1979
Montipora composita Xarifia anopla Humes, 1994
Montipora composita Xarifia heteromeles Humes, 1991
Montipora compressa Odontomolgus forhani Humes, 1985
Montipora foliosa Xarifia species ~1mm Humes, 1985
Montipora ramosa Xarifia pectinea (only 1 found) Humes & Stock, 1972
Montipora ramosa Xarifia temnura Humes, 1985
Montipora sinensis Xarifia temnura 1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Montipora sp. Xarifia anopla 1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Montipora sp. Xarifia extensa 1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Montipora sp. Xarifia species Humes, 1985
Montipora stellata Xarifia species 2.5mm Humes, 1985
Montipora undata Xarifia anopla Humes, 1985
Montipora undata Xarifia heteromeles Humes, 1985
Montipora undata Xarifia syntoma Humes, 1985
Montipora undata Haplomolgus subdeficiens ~1mm Humes, 1985
Montipora undata Xarifia temnura 0.8mm Humes, 1985
Montipora verilli Alteuthellopsis corallina Humes, 1978
Montipora verrucosa Tegastes gemmeus 1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Montipora verrucosa Xarifia apertipes Humes, 1984
Mussusmillia hispida Harpacticoida Nogueira, 2003
Mycetophyllia lamarckiana Corallovexia sp. Humes, 1984
Mycetophyllia lamarckiana Corallovexia sp. #2 Humes, 1985
Oulophyllia crispa Cerioxynus oulophillia Herriot & Immerman, 1979
Oxypora sp. Xarifia species Herriot & Immerman, 1979
Pachyseris rugosa Xarifia acicularis Humes, 1994
Pachyseris speciosa Xarifia exigua Humes, 1985
Pachyseris speciosa Xarifia laminellispinosa Gray, red eye Humes, 1985
Parahalometra robusta Xarifia species 0.8mm; light pale brownish, red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Parahalometra robusta Anchimolgus convexus 1.9mm Humes & Ho, 1968
Pavona angularis Odontomolgus actinophorus Humes, 1985
Pavona angulata Xarifia longipes Humes, 1978
Pavona angulata Odontomolgus actinophorus Humes and Stock, 1973
Pavona cactus Xarifia finitima 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Pavona cactus Odontomolgus actinophorus Humes and Stock, 1973
Pavona danai Odontomolgus actinophorus 1mm; gray, red eye Humes, 1985
Pavona danai Odontomolgus pavonus Humes and Stock, 1973
Pavona danai Anchimolgus gracilipes Humes and Stock, 1973
Pavona sp. Xarifia diminuta Kim, 2007
Pavona varians Xarifia finitima Kim, 2007
Pavona venusta Odontomolgus actinophorus 1.35mm Humes, 1985
Pavona sp. Odontomolgus rhadinus Humes & Stock, 1973
Pectinia lactuca Mandobius regalis 1mm; gray, red eye Humes, 1985
Physogyra lichensteini Xarifia gradata Humes and Stock, 1973
Physogyra lichensteini Xarifia minax Humes, 1994
Platygyra astreiformis Panjakus platygyrae 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Platygyra lamellina Panjakus platygyrae 1.4mm Humes, 1985
Platygyra daedala Panjakus daedala Humes, 1994
Platygyra daedala Alteuthellopsis corallina Humes and Stock, 1973
Platygyra ryukyuensis Panjakus fastigatus Humes and Stock, 1973
Platygyra ryukyuensis Panjakus parvipes Humes, 1981b
Platygyra ryukyuensis Andrianellus papillipes Kim, 2005
Platygyra sinensis Xarifia species Kim, 2005
Platygyra sp. Alteuthellopsis corallina Kim, 2007
Platygyra sp. Xarifia dispar Humes, 1985
Platygyra sp. Panjakus sp. Humes, 1981b
Platygyra daedala Andrianellus exsertidens 1.5mm Humes, 1985
Plerogyra sp. Gelastomolgus Humes & Stock, 1973
Pocillopora damicornis Alteuthellopsis corallina Humes, 1994
Pocillopora damicornis Xarifia fimbriata Humes, 1994
Pocillopora damicornis Xarifia fissilis Humes, 1981b
Pocillopora damicornis Xarifia jugalis ~1.5mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornis Xarifia obesa ~2mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornis Xarifia quinaria 1.4mm; gray w/ red eye Cheng et al., 2007
Pocillopora damicornis Xarifia sectilis 1.4mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornis Xarifia serrata Humes, 1994
Pocillopora damicornis Anchimolgus partenuides 1.7mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa Xarifia fimbriata 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa Xarifia imparilis Kim, 2007
Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa Xarifia jugalis ~1.5mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa Xarifia quinaria 1.5mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora danae Xarifia obesa 1.4mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxi Xarifia comata 1.3mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxi Xarifia fimbriata ~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxi Xarifia imparilis ~1.2mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxi Xarifia jugalis ~1.5mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxi Xarifia maldivensis 1.5mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxi Xarifia obesa 1.4mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora eydouxi Xarifia sectilis 1.4mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora ligulata Xarifia tenta ~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora sp. Tegastes georgei 1.7mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora sp. Xarifia fimbriata 1mm; gray to tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora sp. Xarifia maldivensis Humes, 1981
Pocillopora sp. Xarifia obesa ~1.5mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora sp. Xarifia serrata 1.4mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora sp. cf. verrucosa Xarifia comata ~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora sp. cf. verrucosa Xarifia obesa 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora sp. cf. verrucosa Xarifia serrata ~1.2mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosa Tegastes paulipes ~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosa Xarifia comata 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosa Xarifia gibberula Humes, 1984
Pocillopora verrucosa Xarifia imparilis ~1.2mm Humes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosa Xarifia obesa 1.3mm gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosa Xarifia serrata 1.5mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosa Xarifia tenta ~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Pocillopora verrucosa Panjakus bidentis 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Porites (andrewsi?) Monomolgus unihastatus 1mm; gray to tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Porites (nigrescens?) Monomolgus unihastatus Kim, 2004
Porites latistella Xarifia longa Humes and Stock, 1973
Porites lobata Euryte verecunda Humes and Stock, 1973
Porites lobata Hemicyclops regalis Cheng et al., 2007
Porites lobata Monomolgus torulus Humes, 1992
Porites lobata Kombia incrassata Humes, 1994
Porites lutea Orstomella yaliuensis Humes, 1984
Porites lutea Xarifia species Humes, 1984
Porites lutea Kombia curvata Chen et al., 2009
Porites monticulosa Kombia imminens Humes, 1985
Porites somaliensis Kombia angulata Humes & Stock, 1973
Porites sp. Kombia avitus Nair & Pillai, 1986
Porites nigrescens Monomolgus baculigeres Humes, 1979
Psammocora sp. Monomolgus psammocorae Kim, 2007
Psammocora sp. Kombia angulata Humes, 1979
Psammocora contigua Xarifia diminuta Humes and Stock, 1973
Psammocora contigua Xarifia imitans Humes, 1962
Psammocora contigua Odontomolgus actinophorus 1.35mm Humes, 1985
Psammocora contigua Numboa porosa Humes, 1997
Psammocora contigua Odontomolgus rhadinus 1.1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Psammocora digitata Xarifia formosa Humes and Stock, 1973
Psammocora digitata Xarifia imitans Humes & Ho, 1967
Psammocora logianensis Dumbeana undulatipes 1.2mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1996
Psammocora logianensis Emunoa proknta 1.1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1996
Psammocora logianensis Lipochaetes extrusis Humes, 1996
Psammocora samoensis Odontomolgus exilipes Humes, 1995
Psammocora samoensis Odontomolgus geminus Humes, 1995
Psammocora sp. Xarifia diminuta Kim, 2003
Psammocora sp. cf. contigua Xarifia diminuta Kim, 2003
Psammocora togianensis Numboa porosa Humes, 1997
Scapophyllia cylindrica Xarifia simplex 1.35mm Humes, 1985
Seriatopora caliendrum Xarifia reducta 1.35mm Humes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrix Xarifia eminula 1.8mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrix Xarifia levis 1.1mm Humes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrix Xarifia obesa Opaque gray, red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Seriatopora hystrix Xarifia reducta ~1mm; tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrix Xarifia umbonata ~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrix Xarifia varialabrata 1.1mm Humes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrix Anchiomolgus tenuipes 1.2mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Seriatopora hystrix Anchimolgus noumensis 0.8mm; light pale brown w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Seriatopora octoptera Xarifia reducta Kim, 2003
Seriatopora sp. Xarifia reducta Kim, 2003
Stereonephthya ulicoides Parategastes conexus Humes, 1993
Stylophora mordax Xarifia decorata 1.1mm Humes, 1985
Stylophora mordax Xarifia lissa Humes, 1984
Stylophora pistillata Tegastes georgei 1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Stylophora pistillata Xarifia decorata 1.4mm; opaque, red-brown intestine, red eye Humes, 1985
Stylophora pistillata Xarifia dissona Humes, 1981
Stylophora pistillata Xarifia lissa 1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Stylophora pistillata Xarifia obesa 1.45mm; Gray, intestine dk. Brown, red eye Humes, 1985
Stylophora pistillata Xarifia sectilis 1.4mm Humes, 1985
Stylophora pistillata var. palmata Xarifia obesa ~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Stylophora sp. Xarifia decorata 1.7mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Stylophora sp. Xarifia lissa ~1.5mm; Gray to tan w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Stylophora sp. Xarifia species 1.5mm; opaque, intestine red-brown, red eye Humes & Ho, 1968
Stylophora subseriata Xarifia serrata 1.4mm Humes, 1985
Tubastrea aurea Xarifia insolita Humes, 1985
Tubastrea aurea Xarifia insolita 1.3mm Humes, 1985
Tubastrea sp. Xarifia species Humes, 1985
Turbinaria danae Xarifia lacerans Cheng et al., 2007
Turbinaria danae Xarifia unicata Humes, 1985
Turbinaria sp. (T. elegans?) Xarifia hamata ~1mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Wedanus inconstans Goniopora minor 1.6mm; gray w/ red eye Humes, 1985
Table Three. Listing by Parasite
Parasite Coral
Xarifia plectrata Acrhelia horrescens
Anchimolgus abbreviatus Acrhelia horrescens
Anchimolgus tenuipes Acrhelia horrescens
Xarifia anomala Acropora abrotanoides
Xarifia breviramea Acropora abrotanoides
Xarifia sabiuraensis Acropora abrotanoides
Xarifia trituberata Acropora abrotanoides
Xarifia anomala Acropora convexa
Xarifia sabiuraensis Acropora convexa
Scyphuliger longicaudus Acropora convexa
Xarifia anomala Acropora 'corymbosa' group
Xarifia breviramea Acropora 'corymbosa' group
Xarifia gerlachi Acropora 'corymbosa' group
Xarifia infrequens Acropora 'corymbosa' group
Xarifia linearis Acropora 'corymbosa'
Xarifia trituberata Acropora 'corymbosa' group
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora 'corymbosa' group
Xarifia ablusa Acropora 'corymbosa' group
Scyphuliger pilosus Acropora corymbosa
Scyphuliger pennatus Acropora corymbosa
Scyphuliger tenuatis Acropora cymbicyanthus
Xarifia gerlachi Acropora cytheria
Xarifia infrequens Acropora cytheria
Xarifia tenuis Acropora cytheria
Xarifia ablusa Acropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia anomala Acropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia breviramea Acropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia gerlachi Acropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia infrequens Acropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia linearis Acropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia trituberata Acropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora digitifera (?)
Xarifia ablusa Acropora elseyi
Xarifia fastigata Acropora elseyi
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora elseyi
Alteuthellopsis corallina Acropora exigua
Xarifia breviramea Acropora exigua
Ecphysarion lobophorum Acropora exigua
Scyphuliger latus Acropora exilis
Scyphuliger aristoides Acropora exilis
Scyphuliger paucisurculus Acropora exilis
Ecphysarion lobophorum Acropora florida
Tegastes acroporanus Acropora florida
Xarifia anomala Acropora florida
Xarifia breviramea Acropora florida
Xarifia gerlachi Acropora florida
Xarifia pectinea Acropora florida
Xarifia sabiuraensis Acropora florida
Xarifia trituberata Acropora florida
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora florida
Xarifia basilica Acropora formosa
Xarifia bullifera Acropora formosa
Xarifia infrequens Acropora formosa
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora formosa
Xarifia species Acropora gemmifera
Xarifia anomala Acropora gravida
Xarifia breviramea Acropora gravida
Xarifia gerlachi Acropora gravida
Xarifia pectinea Acropora gravida
Xarifia sabiuraensis Acropora gravida
Xarifia trituberata Acropora gravida
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora gravida
Xarifia indica Acropora hebes
Xarifia laccadivensis Acropora hebes
Xarifia robusta Acropora hebes
Xarifia ablusa Acropora humilis
Xarifia anomala Acropora humilis
Xarifia breviramea Acropora humilis
Xarifia gerlachi Acropora humilis
Xarifia infrequens Acropora humilis
Xarifia linearis Acropora humilis
Xarifia longicauda Acropora humilis
Xarifia pectinea Acropora humilis
Xarifia trituberata Acropora humilis
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora humilis
Xarifia anomala Acropora hyacinthus
Xarifia basilica Acropora hyacinthus
Xarifia breviramea Acropora hyacinthus
Xarifia gerlachi Acropora hyacinthus
Xarifia infrequens Acropora hyacinthus
Xarifia pectinea Acropora hyacinthus
Xarifia sabiuraensis Acropora hyacinthus
Xarifia trituberata Acropora hyacinthus
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora hyacinthus
Scyphuliger concavipes Acropora hyacinthus
Scyphuliger manifestus Acropora hyacinthus
Scyphuliger eumorphus Acropora hyacinthus
Xarifia anomala Acropora intermeda
Xarifia breviramea Acropora intermeda
Xarifia pectinea Acropora intermedia
Xarifia sabiuraensis Acropora intermedia
Xarifia trituberata Acropora intermedia
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora intermedia
Scyphuliger karangmiensis Acropora intermedia
Xarifia breviramea Acropora millepora
Xarifia anomala Acropora palifera
Xarifia exuta Acropora palifera
Xarifia guttulifera Acropora palifera
Xarifia mucronata Acropora palifera
Schedomolgus exciliculus Acropora palifera
Ecphysarion spinulatum Acropora palifera
Unicispina latigentalis Acropora palifera
Corallavexia similis Acropora palmata
Corallovexia sp. Acropora palmata
Lipochrus acroporinus Acropora patula
Xarifia pectinea Acropora patula
Xarifia sabiuraensis Acropora patula
Xarifia trituberata Acropora patula
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora patula
Schedomolgus idanus Acropora patula
Xarifia sp. Acropora pectinata
Xarifia sp. Acropora pectinata
Lipochrus species Acropora rambleri
Xarifia ablusa Acropora rambleri
Xarifia breviramea Acropora rambleri
Xarifia pectinea Acropora rambleri
Xarifia sabiuraensis Acropora rambleri
Xarifia trituberata Acropora rambleri
Lipochrus acroporinus Acropora rosaria
Xarifia ablusa Acropora rosaria
Xarifia fastigata Acropora rosaria
Xarifia rosariae Acropora rosaria
Ecphysarion ampullulum Acropora rosaria
Lipochrus acroporinus Acropora rosaria
Xarifia pectinea Acropora sarmentosa
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora sarmentosa
Xarifia anomala Acropora sp.
Xarifia gerlachi Acropora sp.
Xarifia gerlachi Acropora sp. cf. A. teres
Xarifia tumorisa Acropora squarrosa (millepora)
Scyphuliger placidus Acropora squarrosa (millepora)
Scyphuliger humesi Acropora squarrosa (millepora)
Scyphuliger vicinus Acropora squarrosa (millepora)
Xarifia species Acropora syringodes
Xarifia breviramea Acropora valida
Anchimolgus multidentatus Alveopora catalai
Xarifia mediolobata Alveopora mortensi
Xarifia radians Alveopora mortensi
Odontomolgus mundulus Alveopora mortensi
Xarifia brevicauda Alveopora sp.
Alteuthellopsis corallina Astreopora sp.
Acontiophorus scutatis Astreocheres astroidicola
Stockmyzon murinipes Astroides calycularis
Stockmyzon mucronipes Astroides calycularis
Corallavexia kristenseni Colpophyllia natans
Corallavexia mixtibrachium Colpophyllia natans
Corallovexia mediobrachium Colpophyllia natans
Xarifia villosa Cyphastrea chalcidium
Tegastes gemmus Cyphastrea ocellina
Corallovexia sp. Dendrogyra sp.
Corallovexia sp. Dichocoenia sp.
Corallovexia mediobrachium Diploria clivosa
Diallagomolgus sp. Cyphastrea sp.
Corallavexia brevibrachium Diploria labyrinthformis
Corallavexia mediobrachium Diploria strigosa
Xarifia dispar Echinopora gemmacea
Xarifia echinoporae Echinopora horrida
Anchimolgus exsertus Echinopora horrida
Xarifia dispar Echinopora lamellosa
Xarifia echinoporae Echinopora lamellosa
Anchimolgus tridentatus Echinopora lamellosa
Xarifia dispar Echinopora sp.
Stockmyzon mucronipes Eunicella singularis
Xarifia gracilipes Euphyllia glabrescens
Corallonoxia baki Eusmilia fastigata
Amarda sp. Favia
Cerioxynus alatus Favia favus
Orstomella faviae Favia sp.
Rakotoa proteus Favia sp.
Anchimolgus sp. Favia sp.
Andrianellus exsertidens Favia sp.
Stockia sp. Favia sp.
Xarifia torigera Favites flexuosa
Cerioxynus faviticolus Favites halicora
Cerioxynus moluccensis Favites pentagona
Rakotoa ceramensis Favites pentagona
Cerioxynus bandensis Favites virens
Anchimolgus maximus Fungia concinna
Xarifia species Fungia echinata
Anchimolgus latens Fungia echinata
Anchimolgus pandus Fungia echinata
Schedomolgus tener Fungia echinata
Schedomolgus dumbensis Fungia fungites
Odontomolgus scitulus Fungia fungites
Anchimolgus orectus Fungia paumotensis
Anchimolgus punctilis Fungia paumotensis
Zazaranus fungicolus Fungia species
Odontomolgus flammeus Fungia species
Anchimolgus hastatus Fungia species
Xarifia species Galaxea astreata
Xarifia exserens Galaxea fascicularis
Anchimolgus compressus Galaxea fascicularis
Anchimolgus contractus Galaxea fascicularis
Anchimolgus moluccanus Galaxea fascicularis
Anchimolgus nastuas Galaxea fascicularis
Anchimolgus angustus Gardineroseris planulata
Xarifia clavellata Gardineroseris planulata
Xarifia filata Gardineroseris planulata
Xarifia rasilis Gardineroseris planulata
Odontomolgus mucosus Gardineroseris planulata
Odontomolgus pumulis Gardineroseris planulata
Odontomolgus unioviger Gardineroseris planulata
Anchimolgus eparmatoides Gardineroseris planulata
Anchimolgus gibberulus Gardineroseris planulata
Anchimolgus stellus Gardineroseris planulata
Alteuthellopsis corallina Goniastrea retiformis
Amarda curvus Goniastrea retiformis
Amarda goniastraea Goniastrea retiformis
Odontomolgus parvus Goniastrea retiformis
Wedanus formosanus Goniopora minor
Xarifia hadra Goniopora pedunculata
Xarifia scutipes Goniopora pedunculata
Xarifia resex Goniopora species
Anchimolgus conformatus Goniopora species
Anchimolgus mimeticus Goniopora species
Odontomolgus campulus Goniopora species
Anchimolgus brevarius Goniopora stokesi
Anchimolgus gigas Goniopora stokesi
Xarifia hadra Goniopora tenuidens
Xarifia resex Goniopora tenuidens
Xarifia scutipes Goniopora tenuidens
Wedanus inconstans Goniopora tenuidens
Xarifia apertipes Gyrosmilia interrupta
Odontomolgus fultus Halomitra pileus
Odontomolgus decens Heliofungia actiniformis
Xarifia comptula Hydnophora exesa
Xarifia curtata Hydnophora exesa
Panjakus hydnophorae Hydnophora exesa
Panjakus iratus Hydnophora microconus
Panjakus saccipes Hydnophora microconus
Anchimolgus paragensis Hydnophora microconus
Panjakus eumeces Hydnophora rigida
Humesiella corallicola Hydnophora sp.
Panjakus sp. Hydnophora sp.
Panjakus hydnophorae Hydnophora sp.
Panjakus hydnophorae Hydnophora tenella
Xarifia species Leptoria phrygia
Panjakus directus Leptoria tenuis
Panjakus necopinus Leptoria tenuis
Orstomella lobophylliae Lobophyllia corymbosa
Orstomella lobophylliae Lobophyllia costata
Corallavexia longibrachium Manicina areolata
Corallovexia sp. Meandrina meandrites
Corallonoxia baki Meandrina meandrites
Alteuthellopsis corallina Merulina ampliata
Amardopsis merulinae Merulina ampliata
Xarifia species Merulina ampliata
Odontomolgus bulbalis Merulina ampliata
Corallavexia ventrospina Montastrea brasiliana
Corallavexia dorsospinosa minor Montastrea cavernosa
Corallavexia dorsospinosa Montastrea cavernosa
Corallovexia sp. Montastrea cavernosa
Cerioxynus montastreae Montastrea curta
Haplomolgus incolumis Montipora caliculata
Xarifia anopla Montipora composita
Xarifia heteromeles Montipora composita
Odontomolgus forhani Montipora compressa
Xarifia species Montipora foliosa
Xarifia pectinea (only 1 found) Montipora ramosa
Xarifia temnura Montipora ramosa
Xarifia temnura Montipora sinensis
Xarifia anopla Montipora sp.
Xarifia extensa Montipora sp.
Xarifia species Montipora sp.
Xarifia species Montipora stellata
Xarifia anopla Montipora undata
Xarifia heteromeles Montipora undata
Xarifia syntoma Montipora undata
Haplomolgus subdeficiens Montipora undata
Xarifia temnura Montipora undata
Alteuthellopsis corallina Montipora verilli
Tegastes gemmeus Montipora verrucosa
Xarifia apertipes Montipora verrucosa
Harpacticoida Mussusmillia hispida
Corallovexia sp. Mycetophyllia lamarckiana
Corallovexia sp. #2 Mycetophyllia lamarckiana
Cerioxynus oulophillia Oulophyllia crispa
Xarifia species Oxypora sp.
Xarifia acicularis Pachyseris rugosa
Xarifia exigua Pachyseris speciosa
Xarifia laminellispinosa Pachyseris speciosa
Xarifia species Parahalometra robusta
Anchimolgus convexus Parahalometra robusta
Odontomolgus actinophorus Pavona angularis
Xarifia longipes Pavona angulata
Odontomolgus actinophorus Pavona angulata
Xarifia finitima Pavona cactus
Odontomolgus actinophorus Pavona cactus
Odontomolgus actinophorus Pavona danai
Odontomolgus pavonus Pavona danai
Anchimolgus gracilipes Pavona danai
Xarifia diminuta Pavona sp.
Xarifia finitima Pavona varians
Odontomolgus actinophorus Pavona venusta
Odontomolgus rhadinus Pavona sp.
Mandobius regalis Pectinia lactuca
Xarifia gradata Physogyra lichensteini
Xarifia minax Physogyra lichensteini
Panjakus platygyrae Platygyra astreiformis
Panjakus platygyrae Platygyra lamellina
Panjakus daedala Platygyra daedala
Alteuthellopsis corallina Platygyra daedala
Panjakus fastigatus Platygyra ryukyuensis
Panjakus parvipes Platygyra ryukyuensis
Andrianellus papillipes Platygyra ryukyuensis
Xarifia species Platygyra sinensis
Alteuthellopsis corallina Platygyra sp.
Xarifia dispar Platygyra sp.
Panjakus sp. Platygyra sp.
Andrianellus exsertidens Platygyra daedala
Gelastomolgus Plerogyra sp.
Alteuthellopsis corallina Pocillopora damicornis
Xarifia fimbriata Pocillopora damicornis
Xarifia fissilis Pocillopora damicornis
Xarifia jugalis Pocillopora damicornis
Xarifia obesa Pocillopora damicornis
Xarifia quinaria Pocillopora damicornis
Xarifia sectilis Pocillopora damicornis
Xarifia serrata Pocillopora damicornis
Anchimolgus partenuides Pocillopora damicornis
Xarifia fimbriata Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa
Xarifia imparilis Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa
Xarifia jugalis Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa
Xarifia quinaria Pocillopora damicornis var. caespitosa
Xarifia obesa Pocillopora danae
Xarifia comata Pocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia fimbriata Pocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia imparilis Pocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia jugalis Pocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia maldivensis Pocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia obesa Pocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia sectilis Pocillopora eydouxi
Xarifia tenta Pocillopora ligulata
Tegastes georgei Pocillopora sp.
Xarifia fimbriata Pocillopora sp.
Xarifia maldivensis Pocillopora sp.
Xarifia obesa Pocillopora sp.
Xarifia serrata Pocillopora sp.
Xarifia comata Pocillopora sp. cf. verrucosa
Xarifia obesa Pocillopora sp. cf. verrucosa
Xarifia serrata Pocillopora sp. cf. verrucosa
Tegastes paulipes Pocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia comata Pocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia gibberula Pocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia imparilis Pocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia obesa Pocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia serrata Pocillopora verrucosa
Xarifia tenta Pocillopora verrucosa
Panjakus bidentis Pocillopora verrucosa
Monomolgus unihastatus Porites (andrewsi?)
Monomolgus unihastatus Porites (nigrescens?)
Xarifia longa Porites latistella
Euryte verecunda Porites lobata
Hemicyclops regalis Porites lobata
Monomolgus torulus Porites lobata
Kombia incrassata Porites lobata
Orstomella yaliuensis Porites lutea
Xarifia species Porites lutea
Kombia curvata Porites lutea
Kombia imminens Porites monticulosa
Kombia angulata Porites somaliensis
Kombia avitus Porites sp.
Monomolgus baculigeres Porites nigrescens
Monomolgus psammocorae Psammocora sp.
Kombia angulata Psammocora sp.
Xarifia diminuta Psammocora contigua
Xarifia imitans Psammocora contigua
Odontomolgus actinophorus Psammocora contigua
Numboa porosa Psammocora contigua
Odontomolgus rhadinus Psammocora contigua
Xarifia formosa Psammocora digitata
Xarifia imitans Psammocora digitata
Dumbeana undulatipes Psammocora logianensis
Emunoa proknta Psammocora logianensis
Lipochaetes extrusis Psammocora logianensis
Odontomolgus exilipes Psammocora samoensis
Odontomolgus geminus Psammocora samoensis
Xarifia diminuta Psammocora sp.
Xarifia diminuta Psammocora sp. cf. contigua
Numboa porosa Psammocora togianensis
Xarifia simplex Scapophyllia cylindrica
Xarifia reducta Seriatopora caliendrum
Xarifia eminula Seriatopora hystrix
Xarifia levis Seriatopora hystrix
Xarifia obesa Seriatopora hystrix
Xarifia reducta Seriatopora hystrix
Xarifia umbonata Seriatopora hystrix
Xarifia varialabrata Seriatopora hystrix
Anchiomolgus tenuipes Seriatopora hystrix
Anchimolgus noumensis Seriatopora hystrix
Xarifia reducta Seriatopora octoptera
Xarifia reducta Seriatopora sp.
Parategastes conexus Stereonephthya ulicoides
Xarifia decorata Stylophora mordax
Xarifia lissa Stylophora mordax
Tegastes georgei Stylophora pistillata
Xarifia decorata Stylophora pistillata
Xarifia dissona Stylophora pistillata
Xarifia lissa Stylophora pistillata
Xarifia obesa Stylophora pistillata
Xarifia sectilis Stylophora pistillata
Xarifia obesa Stylophora pistillata var. palmata
Xarifia decorata Stylophora sp.
Xarifia lissa Stylophora sp.
Xarifia species Stylophora sp.
Xarifia serrata Stylophora subseriata
Xarifia insolita Tubastrea aurea
Xarifia insolita Tubastrea aurea
Xarifia species Tubastrea sp.
Xarifia lacerans Turbinaria danae
Xarifia unicata Turbinaria danae
Xarifia hamata Turbinaria sp. (T. elegans?)
Wedanus inconstans Goniopora minor

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