Feature Article: Elemental Analysis of Skimmate: What Does a Protein Skimmer Actually Remove from Aquarium Water?
Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. The chemical/elemental composition of skimmate generated by an H&S 200-1260 skimmer on a 175-gallon reef tank over the course of several days or a week had some surprises.
Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Many factors contribute to the 'value' of a skimmer to an aquarist, including quality of construction, size, footprint, noise level, ease of cleaning, energy efficiency of the pump, and of course, the ability to remove organic waste from aquarium water.
Here, we report the effects observed before and after two monthly water exchanges and discussion the results' implications.
Whether your plants even require any or little dosing is entirely up to you. There are plenty of setups of slow growing ferns and mosses that are perfectly balanced and grow at a rapid pace on their own. For the majority of planted tanks however, a little addition of carbon dioxide will go a long way towards making your plants grow more lush and beautiful.
Although a tank with temperate marine macro algae as the primary focus may be unheard of in the aquarium hobby, all of the equipment required is readily available, and as you may have noticed, many of the techniques involved are strikingly similar to common reef-keeping techniques already being employed.
Terry discusses common types of filtration found in reef tanks.
The major contributors to heat in the display tank are lights, ambient temperature, and heat from pumps, especially those that are submerged. Chillers and room air conditioners work very well, but are expensive to buy and run.
Aquarium Chemistry: The Carbonate System in the Aquarium, and the Ocean, Part III: Methods Available to the Aquarist.
A variety of methods have been devised for maintaining carbonate chemistry parameters in aquaria. Some have proven very effective while others are much less so. This month we'll discuss methods that are commonly utilized by aquarists to manipulate carbonate chemistry, yet prove to be less than ideal at encouraging growth in calcifying organisms.
In Part 1 of this article, we go over the basics of heat transfer theory as applied to aquariums.
Feature Article: Environmental Stability: Nature v. Aquarium: Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Ultraviolet Radiation, Dissolved Oxygen, and ORP, Part 2
We'll resume our discussion of various physical parameters beginning with Photosynthetically Active Radiation, or PAR, followed by UV Radiation, Dissolved Oxygen, and finally ORP.
In this article, we'll compare some physical parameters of various types of reef biotopes to those observed in a small aquarium. How does the stability of this 140 gallon system stack up to various natural environments? What are the long term effects of the varying conditions seen in an aquarium?
Terry discusses tips on acclimation, nutrition, supplements, the immune system, and medication for Aquarists.
Aquatic and Terrestrial Research Team. This project is designed to analyze the specific strains of bacteria used in a commercial probiotic formula. This particular probiotic compound could lead the way into the next generation of home aquaculture hobbyists.
Aquatic & Terrestrial Research Team. While Probiotics continue to grow in popularity, it is important to look at the actual organisms found in culture.
Aquarium Chemistry: The Carbonate System in the Aquarium, and the Ocean, Part II: The Interacting Carbonate System
Center for Marine Science, Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 5600 Marvin K. Moss Ln, Wilmington, NC 28409. In this article we will discuss the major interactions of the carbonate system in sea water.
Practicing these good habits will minimize stress, prevent injury and insure that your stock will be well nourished.
Feature Article: The Development of a Method for the Quantitative Evaluation of Protein Skimmer Performance
Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Protein skimmers have become indispensable for many aquarists who strive to maintain the high water quality necessary to keep stony corals.
Aquarium Chemistry: The Carbonate System in the Aquarium, and the Ocean, Part I: The Components of the Carbonate System
By understanding the carbonate system and using that knowledge to our advantage it is possible to encourage rapid calcification and growth in many of the calcifying organisms we maintain in captivity.
This article is an intervention of sorts, at least when it comes to simplifying one key aspect of the marine aquarium hobby - salinity (or specific gravity) testing.